Revisiting the Writing-Speaking Connection: Challenges for Research on Writing and Writing Instruction
Both research in the field of writing and writing pedagogy have been built to a large extent on the premise that, as a fundamental discourse process, writing has critical connections to speaking. What those connections are has been debated by both researchers and teachers. This article reviews writing research that implicates writing-speaking relationships by constructing two contrasting positions for organizing the research and understanding the relationships: (a) that writing differs from speaking, and (b) that writing is similar to speaking. Research issues regarding integrating these positions are raised, and on the basis of the review a guideline is offered for future writing research, implicating the field of writing in concerns about teaching and learning in different academic and sociocultural contexts.