The Evolution of Cooperation

Published on Oct 1, 1985
Robert Axelrod43
Estimated H-index: 43
(UM: University of Michigan),
Willie Hamilton56
Estimated H-index: 56
(UM: University of Michigan)
Cooperation in organisms, whether bacteria or primates, has been a difficulty for evolutionary theory since Darwin. On the assumption that interactions between pairs of individuals occur on a probabilistic basis, a model is developed based on the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy in the context of the Prisoner9s Dilemma game. Deductions from the model, and the results of a computer tournament show how cooperation based on reciprocity can get started in an asocial world, can thrive while interacting with a wide range of other strategies, and can resist invasion once fully established. Potential applications include specific aspects of territoriality, mating, and disease.
  • References (23)
  • Citations (15098)
Published on Sep 1, 1980in Journal of Conflict Resolution2.47
Robert Axelrod43
Estimated H-index: 43
(UM: University of Michigan)
This study reports and analyzes the results of the second round of the computer tournament for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. The object is to gain a deeper understanding of how to perform well in such a setting. The 62 entrants were able to draw lessons from the results of the first round and were able to design their entries to take these lessons into account. The results of the second round demonstrate a number of subtle pitfalls which specific types of decision rules can encounter. The win...
Published on Jun 1, 1980in The American Naturalist3.85
Robert M. Fagen4
Estimated H-index: 4
Models of evolution of animal fighting strategies generally assume that contestants encounter each other perfectly randomly with respect to strategy type. I modified two game-theory models of J. Maynard Smith, G. R. Price, and G. A. Parker to include any amount of encounter nonrandomness. Analysis of my models demonstrates that assortative encounters (in which like encounters like with greater than chance probability) favor evolution of pure conventional fighting tactics, and that a "conspiracy ...
Published on Jun 1, 1980in The American Naturalist3.85
Ivan D. Chase17
Estimated H-index: 17
Put in one sentence, the central message of this article is: There are theoretical reasons and empirical evidence to suggest that the performance of cooperative and noncooperative behavior by animals in many situations is best explained by considering both fitness benefits and the contributions of other group members to cooperative behavior. The formal model presented here indicates one way in which fitness benefits and the actions of other group members can be combined to yield predictions abou...
Published on May 1, 1980in Animal Behaviour2.67
Eric A. Fischer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of California, Berkeley)
Abstract The behaviour and reproductive ecology of the simultaneously hermaphroditic coral reef fish, Hypoplectrus nigricans (Serranidae), the black hamlet, was investigated in an effort to elucidate the relationship between simultaneous hermaphroditism and mating behaviour. The major features of the mating system are as follows. (1) Hamlets spawn only in pairs, one partner releasing eggs and the other fertilizing them. There is no selfing. (2) Eggs are planktonic. There is no parental care. (3)...
Published on Nov 1, 1979in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology2.10
Peter B. Stacey9
Estimated H-index: 9
(CU: University of Colorado Boulder)
1. Acorn woodpeckers typically live in permanent social groups in which most adults help to incubate and feed the young of a single nest. The selective basis of communal breeding in this species is examined. 2. At the study area in New Mexico, most juveniles did not remain on their natal territories during subsequent breeding seasons. There was also a high rate of turnover among adults within each group. The groups were not composed entirely of extended families, and unrelated adults fed young. ...
Published on Sep 1, 1979in Scientific American1.95
Norman Geschwind46
Estimated H-index: 46
(Harvard University)
Published on Jul 1, 1979in Scientific American1.95
Warner Henle1
Estimated H-index: 1
Gertrude Henle64
Estimated H-index: 64
Evelyne T. Lennette35
Estimated H-index: 35
Published on Jan 1, 2013
Jon Elster52
Estimated H-index: 52
Published on Nov 1, 1978in Nature43.07
J. David Ligon29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UNM: University of New Mexico),
Sandra H. Ligon7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UNM: University of New Mexico)
RECIPROCITY1, or reciprocal altruism2, and kin selection3 are concepts basic to sociobiology. Although both theories have been widely accepted4, little critical evidence exists for either5,6. Communal, or cooperatively breeding, birds are important organisms for testing these theories because nonbreeding helpers regularly provide aid to nestlings, such as food and protection. Helpers are often related to the nestlings they aid, frequently being older siblings7,8, leading some authors to conclude...
Cited By15098
Published on Jan 1, 2020
Josephine Antoniou8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UCLan: University of Central Lancashire)
With the 4th generation technology (4G), only being deployed for a few years, 5G technology is slowly emerging to support the Internet of things (IoT), where millions of sensors and mobile devices will be deployed in order to provide data for smart homes, smart buildings and smart cities. 5G networks will have to handle data (collection, storage, mining, analysis, etc.) gathered from a very diverse set of sources like traffic, weather, security incidents, crowds, etc. Data analytics and network ...
Published on Jan 1, 2020in Chaos Solitons & Fractals3.06
Yunya Xie1
Estimated H-index: 1
(TUFE: Tianjin University of Finance and Economics),
Shuhua Zhang2
Estimated H-index: 2
(TUFE: Tianjin University of Finance and Economics)
+ 1 AuthorsHongyu Bu (TUFE: Tianjin University of Finance and Economics)
Abstract Since ancient times, people have lived in a hierarchical society. In this paper, we consider a simple hierarchical society with disadvantaged group and powerful group(i.e. the binary social status). The ability for powerful group is reflected to be a punisher, and this privilege cannot be imitated by the disadvantaged agent. On this base, the theory of asymmetric evolutionary game with hierarchical punishment is extend. And its impact on the evolution of cooperation is studied. The simu...
Published on Jan 1, 2020in Chaos Solitons & Fractals3.06
Mi Zhang (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University), Yongjuan Ma (YUFE: Yunnan University of Finance and Economics)+ 3 AuthorsRui-Wu Wang4
Estimated H-index: 4
(NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)
Abstract Cooperation is a ubiquitous trait among individuals of a species which interbreeds in nature and forms part of groups [1] . Various theories and models have been developed to explain the origins, maintenance, and continuation of cooperation within a generic population. Among these theories is the prisoner's dilemma (PD), which is a well-known framework for investigations on agents’ behavior and strategies [2] . In a traditional PD game, pairwise players are assigned the same initial end...
Published on Jan 1, 2020
Josephine Antoniou8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UCLan: University of Central Lancashire)
This chapter considers the cooperation between vehicular nodes in an ad hoc network as a decision resulting from the potential interaction between any two such nodes. We consider the potential for continuous communication between these nodes, under the condition they keep sharing mutually beneficial information. Describing and analysing entity interactions is a situation that makes a good candidate to be modelled using the theoretical framework of game theory. The fact that this new and interest...
Federica Zardo1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Vienna)
Negotiations are the phase during which joint ownership, its conceptualisation and its presence, can be better traced. It is during the bargaining process that actors put forward explicit proposals with the purpose of reaching an agreement where conflicting interests are present and, under conditions of conflict and uncertainty, actors try to obtain what they want and combine divergent needs into a single outcome. This chapter frames the analysis in the wider debate on Euro-Mediterranean relatio...
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Palgrave Communications
Gholamreza Askari1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Semnan University),
Madjid Eshaghi Gordji10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Semnan University),
Choonkil Park28
Estimated H-index: 28
(Hanyang University)
The rational choice theory is based on this idea that people rationally pursue goals for increasing their personal interests. Here, we present a new concept of rational choice as a hyper-rational choice in which the actor thinks about profit or loss of other actors in addition to his personal profit or loss and then will choose an action that is desirable to him. We implement the hyper-rational choice to generalize and expand the game theory. Results of this study will help to model the behavior...
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology2.98
Monika Wörle2
Estimated H-index: 2
(LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich),
Markus Paulus10
Estimated H-index: 10
(LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)
Abstract Reciprocity has been suggested to represent a crucial normative principle for humans. The current study aimed to investigate the normative foundations of reciprocity and the development of a reciprocity norm in young children. To this end, we presented 3- to 6-year-olds with three conditions. In one condition, a protagonist reciprocated sharing a large proportion of resources. In another condition, a protagonist reciprocated sharing a small proportion of resources. In a third condition,...
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Scientific Reports4.01
Attila Szolnoki54
Estimated H-index: 54
(MTA: Hungarian Academy of Sciences),
Matjaz Perc74
Estimated H-index: 74
(University of Maribor)
Varying environmental conditions affect relations between interacting individuals in social dilemmas, thus affecting also the evolution of cooperation. Oftentimes these environmental variations are seasonal and can therefore be mathematically described as periodic changes. Accordingly, we here study how periodic shifts between different manifestations of social dilemmas affect cooperation. We observe a non-trivial interplay between the inherent spatiotemporal dynamics that characterizes the spre...
Published on 2019in Scientific Reports4.01
Johannes Wachs2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CEU: Central European University),
János Kertész45
Estimated H-index: 45
(CEU: Central European University)
Competing firms can increase profits by setting prices collectively, imposing significant costs on consumers. Such groups of firms are known as cartels and because this behavior is illegal, their operations are secretive and difficult to detect. Cartels feel a significant internal obstacle: members feel short-run incentives to cheat. Here we present a network-based framework to detect potential cartels in bidding markets based on the idea that the chance a group of firms can overcome this obstac...