Robert Axelrod
University of Michigan
Publications 112
#1Ke-Chih Lin (Princeton University)H-Index: 2
#2Gonzalo Torga (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 4
Last.Robert H. Austin (Princeton University)H-Index: 2
view all 7 authors...
The ability of a population of PC3 prostate epithelial cancer cells to become resistant to docetaxel therapy and progress to a mesenchymal state remains a fundamental problem. The progression towards resistance is difficult to directly study in heterogeneous ecological environments such as tumors. In this work, we use a micro-fabricated “evolution accelerator” environment to create a complex heterogeneous yet controllable in-vitro environment with a spatially-varying drug concentration. With suc...
#1Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 43
#2Kenneth J. Pienta (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 103
The incidence and mortality for many cancers continue to rise. As such, critical action is needed on many fronts to reshape how a society thinks, discusses, and fights cancer especially as the population grows and ages. Cancer can be described as a broken social contract that requires different conceptual frameworks such as game theory. To this end, it is our hope that this perspective will catalyze a discussion to rethink the way we approach, communicate, and fund cancer research; thinking of c...
#1K. Van Naarden Braun (CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)H-Index: 1
#2R. Grazel (American Academy of Pediatrics)H-Index: 1
Last.N. Spillane (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 1
view all 21 authors...
Evaluation of critical congenital heart defects screening using pulse oximetry in the neonatal intensive care unit
#1Rumen Iliev (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 11
#2Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 43
We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have ...
#1Benjamin Edwards (IBM)H-Index: 7
#2Alexander Furnas (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 1
Last.Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 43
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Cyber conflict is now a common and potentially dangerous occurrence. The target typically faces a strategic choice based on its ability to attribute the attack to a specific perpetrator and whether it has a viable punishment at its disposal. We present a game-theoretic model, in which the best strategic choice for the victim depends on the vulnerability of the attacker, the knowledge level of the victim, payoffs for different outcomes, and the beliefs of each player about their opponent...
#1Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 43
#2Larissa Forster (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 2
We analyze how historical analogies are used in the media to make sense of novel events. While earlier work focused on single case studies, this is the first quantitative analysis comparing historical analogies invoked in three events in newspapers from five countries. With very high intercoder reliability we found 881 invocations of historical analogies. We found an interesting contrast between the roles of historical analogies in foreign policy decision making vs. newspaper articles. When the ...
#1Scott AtranH-Index: 42
#2Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 43
Last.Baruch Fischhoff (CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)H-Index: 81
view all 4 authors...
Despite intense efforts by intelligence agencies and countless conferences, articles, and books, fundamental aspects of terrorism remain unclear: What identifies terrorists before they act; how do they radicalize; what motivates their violence; when do they act; what countermeasures are most effective? These efforts to find answers have fallen short in part because of flaws in program design, despite commitment and courage from many people involved. We propose an alternative design, driven by th...
#1Rumen Iliev (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 11
#2Joe Hoover (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 5
Last.Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 43
view all 4 authors...
Abstract People use more positive words than negative words. Referred to as “linguistic positivity bias” (LPB), this effect has been found across cultures and languages, prompting the conclusion that it is a panhuman tendency. However, although multiple competing explanations of LPB have been proposed, there is still no consensus on what mechanism(s) generate LPB or even on whether it is driven primarily by universal cognitive features or by environmental factors. In this work we propose that LP...
#1Rumen Iliev (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 11
#2Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 43
The vast majority of the work on culture and cognition has focused on cross-cultural comparisons, largely ignoring the dynamic aspects of culture. In this article, we provide a diachronic analysis of causal cognition over time. We hypothesized that the increased role of education, science, and technology in Western societies should be accompanied by greater attention to causal connections. To test this hypothesis, we compared word frequencies in English texts from different time periods and foun...