Robert Axelrod
University of Michigan
SociologyEconomicsPolitical scienceSocial psychologyPolitics
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Publications 111
#1Kenneth J. Pienta (JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)H-Index: 106
#2Emma U. Hammarlund (Lund University)H-Index: 14
Last. Joel S. BrownH-Index: 33
view all 5 authors...
Advances in curative treatment to remove the primary tumor have increased survival of localized cancers for most solid tumor types, yet cancers that have spread are typically incurable and account for >90% of cancer-related deaths. Metastatic disease remains incurable because, somehow, tumors evolve resistance to all known compounds, including therapies. In all of these incurable patients, de novo lethal cancer evolves capacities for both metastasis and resistance. Therefore, cancers in differen...
1 CitationsSource
#1Kenneth J. Pienta (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 106
#2Emma U. Hammarlund (University of Southern Denmark)H-Index: 14
Last. Sarah R. Amend (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 9
view all 5 authors...
5 CitationsSource
#1Ke-Chih Lin (Princeton University)H-Index: 3
#2Gonzalo Torga (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 5
Last. Robert H. Austin (Princeton University)H-Index: 69
view all 7 authors...
The ability of a population of PC3 prostate epithelial cancer cells to become resistant to docetaxel therapy and progress to a mesenchymal state remains a fundamental problem. The progression towards resistance is difficult to directly study in heterogeneous ecological environments such as tumors. In this work, we use a micro-fabricated “evolution accelerator” environment to create a complex heterogeneous yet controllable in-vitro environment with a spatially-varying drug concentration. With suc...
4 CitationsSource
#1Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 46
#2Kenneth J. Pienta (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 106
The incidence and mortality for many cancers continue to rise. As such, critical action is needed on many fronts to reshape how a society thinks, discusses, and fights cancer especially as the population grows and ages. Cancer can be described as a broken social contract that requires different conceptual frameworks such as game theory. To this end, it is our hope that this perspective will catalyze a discussion to rethink the way we approach, communicate, and fund cancer research; thinking of c...
2 CitationsSource
#1K. Van Naarden Braun (CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)H-Index: 1
#2R. Grazel (American Academy of Pediatrics)H-Index: 1
Last. Lorraine F. GargH-Index: 4
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Evaluation of critical congenital heart defects screening using pulse oximetry in the neonatal intensive care unit
4 CitationsSource
#1Rumen Iliev (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 1
#2Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 46
We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have ...
3 CitationsSource
#1Benjamin Edwards (IBM)H-Index: 8
#2Alexander C. Furnas (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 1
Last. Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 46
view all 4 authors...
Cyber conflict is now a common and potentially dangerous occurrence. The target typically faces a strategic choice based on its ability to attribute the attack to a specific perpetrator and whether it has a viable punishment at its disposal. We present a game-theoretic model, in which the best strategic choice for the victim depends on the vulnerability of the attacker, the knowledge level of the victim, payoffs for different outcomes, and the beliefs of each player about their opponent. The res...
5 CitationsSource
#1Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 46
#2Larissa Forster (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 2
We analyze how historical analogies are used in the media to make sense of novel events. While earlier work focused on single case studies, this is the first quantitative analysis comparing historical analogies invoked in three events in newspapers from five countries. With very high intercoder reliability we found 881 invocations of historical analogies. We found an interesting contrast between the roles of historical analogies in foreign policy decision making vs. newspaper articles. When the ...
2 CitationsSource
#1Scott AtranH-Index: 47
#2Robert Axelrod (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 46
Last. Baruch Fischhoff (CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)H-Index: 84
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Despite intense efforts by intelligence agencies and countless conferences, articles, and books, fundamental aspects of terrorism remain unclear: What identifies terrorists before they act; how do they radicalize; what motivates their violence; when do they act; what countermeasures are most effective? These efforts to find answers have fallen short in part because of flaws in program design, despite commitment and courage from many people involved. We propose an alternative design, driven by th...
21 CitationsSource