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Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: Current state and prospects

Published on Dec 1, 2010in Fitoterapia2.431
· DOI :10.1016/j.fitote.2010.07.010
Shonkor Kumar Das6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Fukui),
Mina Masuda9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Fukui)
+ 1 AuthorsMikio Sakakibara18
Estimated H-index: 18
(University of Fukui)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract Cordyceps militaris is a potential harbour of bio-metabolites for herbal drugs and evidences are available about its applications for revitalization of various systems of the body from ancient times. Amongst all the species, C. militaris is considered as the oldest source of some useful chemical constituents. Besides their popular applications for tonic medicine by the all stairs of the community, the constituents of C. militaris are now used extensively in modern systems of medicine. The current survey records the mysterious potentials of C. militaris are boosting up the present herbal treatments, as well as gearing up the green pharmacy revolution, in order to create a friendly environment with reasonable safety. Evidence showed that the active principles of C. militaris are beneficial to act as pro-sexual, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant/anti-aging, anti-tumour/anti-cancer/anti-leukemic, anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic, immunomodulatory, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-protozoal, insecticidal, larvicidal, anti-fibrotic, steroidogenic, hypoglacaemic, hypolipidaemic, anti-angiogenetic, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, anti-malarial, anti-fatigue, neuroprotective, liver-protective, reno-protective as well as pneumo-protective, let alone their other synergistic activities, which let it be marketable in the western countries as over-the-counter medicine. A number of culture techniques for this mushroom have been noticed, for example, storage/stock culture, pre-culture, popular/indigenous culture (spawn culture, husked rice culture and saw dust culture) and, special/laboratory culture (shaking culture, submerged culture, surface liquid culture and continuous/repeated batch culture). The prospects for herbal biotechnology regarding drug discovery using C. militaris delivering what it has promised are high, as the technology is now extremely more powerful than before. This study chiefly highlights the medicinal uses of the mushroom C. militaris including its culture techniques, also aiming to draw sufficient attention of the researchers to the frontier research needs in this context.
  • References (82)
  • Citations (157)
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References82
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#1Shonkor Kumar Das (University of Fukui)H-Index: 6
#2Mina Masuda (University of Fukui)H-Index: 9
Last. Mikio Sakakibara (University of Fukui)H-Index: 18
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Abstract The effect of medium components on cordycepin production by Cordyceps militaris mutant obtained by ion beam irradiation was investigated. According to the response surface analysis using a central composite design for the prospective mutant G81-3, the predicted optimal concentrations of glucose as the carbon source and the yeast extract as the nitrogen source were 86.2 g/l and 93.8 g/l, respectively, and 6.84 g/l cordycepin was obtained. To date, this is the highest value for cordycepin...
26 CitationsSource
#1S.K. DasH-Index: 1
#2Mina MasudaH-Index: 9
Last. M SakakibaraH-Index: 1
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To obtain a sustainable mutant of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris with a higher cordycepin production, high-energy ion beam irradiation was applied in the present study. Upon successful irradiation by a proton beam, 30 classes of 8-azaadenine and 28 classes of 8-azaaguanine resistant mutants were obtained of which 7 classes (A63-7, A63-8, A81-2, A81-6, G63-8, G81-3, G82-4) were selected as initially promising mutants using their antibacterial ability as an index of cordycepin producti...
20 Citations
#1Shonkor Kumar Das (University of Fukui)H-Index: 6
#2Mina Masuda (University of Fukui)H-Index: 9
Last. Mikio Sakakibara (University of Fukui)H-Index: 18
view all 5 authors...
Aims: To obtain a higher cordycepin production using Cordyceps militaris mutant obtained by a new mutagenesis technique called ‘ion beam’. Methods and Results: Successful irradiation of C. militaris NBRC 9787 by a proton beam with high energy was performed, and 30 classes of 8-azaadenine- and 28 classes of 8-azaaguanine-resistant mutants were obtained on mutant screening, of which seven classes were selected as promising preliminary mutants having an antibacterial ability as an index of cordycep...
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#1Yu-Wei Lin (NTU: National Taiwan University)H-Index: 8
#2Been-Huang Chiang (NTU: National Taiwan University)H-Index: 25
Abstract This study used Radix astragali (RA) as the medium for culturing Cordyceps militaris to investigate the anti-tumor activity of the fermentation broth. It was found that the product from culturing C. militaris in RA medium had a better anti-tumor activity than that culturing in synthetic medium. The fermentation broth inhibited the growth of four tumor cells including human gastric cancer AGS cells, human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells and murine c...
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Medicinal herbs are moving from fringe to mainstream use with a greater number of people seeking remedies and health approaches free from side eff ects caused by synthetic chemicals. Most people believe that herbs are harmless plants, but when these are taken concurrently with drugs, interactions are possible. In this review article, we have discussed several popular herbs, and attempted to provide a comprehensive review that summarizes drug-herb interactions. Mustering systematic information ab...
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#2Wei Yang (JNU: Jinan University)H-Index: 5
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Abstract The water-soluble crude polysaccharides were obtained from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris by hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharides were successively purified by chromatography on DEAE–cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-100 HR columns, giving main three polysaccharide fractions termed P50-1, P70-1, and P70-2. Structural features of P70-1 were investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis, such as partial acid hydr...
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#1Hui Mei YuH-Index: 4
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The Chinese herb DongChong-XiaCao originating from Cordyceps sinensis is widely used as a traditional medicine in China for treatment of a wide variety of diseases. The extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (CSE) and Cordyceps militaris (CME) are well-known for their biological effects. In the present study, the antioxidant efficiency of CME and CSE in protecting lipid, protein, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidative damage was investigated. CME and CSE showed weakly inhibitory effect on l...
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Abstract A mushroom lectin has been purified from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, which is one of the most popular mushrooms in eastern Asia used as a nutraceutical and in traditional Chinese medicine. This lectin, designated CML, exhibited hemagglutination activity in mouse and rat erythrocytes, but not in human ABO erythrocytes. SDS-PAGE of CML revealed a single band with a molecular mass of 31.0 kDa under both nonreducing and reducing conditions that was stained by silver nitrate, and a 31.4 ...
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Abstract The influence of initial pH value, various nitrogen sources, plant oils, and modes of propagation (shake-flask and static culture) on the production of biomass, exopolysaccharide (EPS), adenosine and, in particular, cordycepin, by Cordyceps militaris CCRC 32219 were investigated. Optimal conditions for mycelial growth, EPS and cordycepin production were observed at relatively low pH. Amongst organic sources, yeast extract (YE) was favorable for EPS and cordycepin production, while corn ...
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#1Yuxiang Gu (ECUST: East China University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 3
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Abstract In order to improve the accumulation of valuable metabolites (3′-deoxyadenosine, adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, uridine, adenine and uracil) in Cordyceps militaris , multiple factors such as carbon sources, nitrogen sources, metal ions and fermentation duration were investigated in liquid shake flasks. Using both potato broth and glucose as carbon sources were found to facilitate the production of nucleosides and bases most, and 2% of glucose was the most suitable initial level. Mixtur...
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Abstract Herbal medicines and their bioactive compounds are increasingly being recognized as useful drugs for cancer treatments. The parasitic fungus Cordyceps militaris is an attractive anticancer herbal since it shows very powerful anticancer activity due to its phytocompound cordycepin. We previously discovered and reported that a high amount of xylitol is present in Cordyceps militaris extract, and that xylitol unexpectedly showed anticancer activity in a cancer-selective manner. We thus hyp...
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Abstract The fermented products of various materials with the mushroom Cordyceps militaris mycelia and silkworm pupa changed the bioactive compounds and increased the biological activity. Fermentation of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv Sulhyang) mixed with silkworm pupa (Bombyx mori) using the mushroom Cordyceps militaris mycelia was undertaken using a solid culture. Previously frozen strawberries were fermented with 0, 25 and 50% of silkworm pupa (FS, FSP25, FSP50, respectively) or sil...
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Abstract Cordyceps militaris is an entomopathogenic fungus which is often used in Asia as a traditional medicine developed from age-old wisdom. Presently, cordycepin from C. militaris is a great interest in medicinal applications. However, cellular growth of C. militaris and the association with cordycepin production remain poorly understood. To explore the metabolism of C. militaris as potential cell factories in medical and biotechnology applications, this study developed a high-quality genome...
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#1Liang Ma (Jiangnan University)H-Index: 2
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Radio frequency (RF) was applied to heat Cordyceps militaris for the purpose of quality evaluation and microorganism control. RF heating caused gradual temperature increases ranging from 59.6 to 63.8°C, resulting in good heating uniformity and uniform temperature distribution. Compared with conventional high pressure steam (HPS), RF heating resulted in significant (p < .05) higher total phenolic, flavonoids, and cordycepin contents of C. militaris. In addition to higher reduction of total aerobi...
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#1Haiwei Lou (Henan University of Technology)
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As a highly valued fungus, Cordyceps militaris has been widely used all over the world. Although the wild resources of C. militaris are limited, the fruiting bodies of C. militaris have been successfully cultivated on a large-scale. However, the high-frequency degeneration of C. militaris during subculture and preservation seriously limits the development of the C. militaris industry. How to solve the degeneration of C. militaris has become an unsolved bottleneck problem throughout the whole Cor...
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