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Influence of virgin coconut oil on blood coagulation factors, lipid levels and LDL oxidation in cholesterol fed Sprague–Dawley rats
Abstract
Summary Background aims Experimental and epidemiological studies indicate an association between dietary saturated fatty acids and thrombosis, but the effects of individual fatty acids on haemostasis are still controversial. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of feeding virgin coconut oil (VCO) on blood coagulation factors, lipid levels and in vitro oxidation of LDL in comparison with copra oil (CO) and sunflower oil (SFO) in cholesterol (1%) and oil (10% w/w) fed rats. Methods Rats were given the test oils along with cholesterol for 45 days. After the experimental period, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, thrombotic risk factor levels viz . fibrin, fibrinogen, factor V, 6-ketoPGF1α and prothrombin time were measured. In vitro Cu 2+ induced oxidation of LDL, erythrocyte membrane and LDL TBARS content and plasma antioxidant vitamins (A and E) were also evaluated. Results Administration of VCO showed significant antithrombotic effect compared to copra oil and the effects were comparable with sunflower oil fed animals. The antioxidant vitamin levels were found to be higher in VCO fed animals than other groups. LDL isolated from VCO fed animals when subjected to oxidant (Cu 2+ ) in vitro showed significant resistance to oxidation as compared to the LDL isolated from other two groups. Dietary administration of VCO reduced the cholesterol and triglyceride levels and maintained the levels of blood coagulation factors. Results also indicate that VCO feeding can prevent the oxidation of LDL from oxidants. These properties of VCO may be attributed to the presence of biologically active unsaponifiable components viz . vitamin E, provitamin A, polyphenols and phytosterols.
  • References (63)
  • Cited By (56)
A Constantinescu1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
D Han1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Lester Packer10
Estimated H-index: 10
Abstract Vitamin E, the major lipid chain-breaking antioxidant in erythrocyte membranes, is present in low concentration, suggesting that mechanisms should exist to protect against its loss. Enzymatic pathways for the recycling of vitamin E from its tocopheroxyl radical have been observed previously in inner membranes of mitochondria and microsomes. These pathways use electron transport enzymes and their substrates to regenerate vitamin E. Erythrocyte membranes also contain significant NADH-cyto...
Cited 160 Download Pdf
D. Cylwik1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Mogielnicki A4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Karol Kramkowski7
Estimated H-index: 7
... more
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of L-arginine (L-Arg) on haemostasis in stasis model of venous thrombosis in renal hypertensive rats. The effect of the single dose (i.v.300 mg/kg bolus+300 mg/kg/h) and of the 10-day application (p.o. 1 g/kg, once daily) of L-Arg was determined. L-Arg reduced the blood pressure both in the acute and long-term application. The single dose of L-Arg decreased the occurrence rate of the thrombus whereas long-term administration reduced significantly t...
Ref 31Cited 13 Download Pdf
G.L. Catignani1
Estimated H-index: 1
Publisher Summary This chapter describes the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method that offers a rapid, sensitive, simple, specific, precise, and nondestructive microprocedure for the simultaneous determination of retinol and α-tocopherol in plasma or serum. An isocratic HPLC system is capable of reproducing the conditions including a UV detector and a 10-mV, 10-cm recorder, intergrating recorder or data handling system. Step requiring hexane should be carried out in a hood. Alter...
Ref 4Cited 60 Source Cite this paper
D.N. Kim9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Albany Medical College),
K.T. Lee7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Albany Medical College),
Laurence A. Sherman2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Albany Medical College)
... more
Abstract In previous studies with rats we observed that certain thrombogenic diets resulted in a stronger clot (greater binding power as measured in the thrombelastograph) and prolonged clot-lysis times as compared to simple stock diets. Furthermore, there was a close correlation between the plasma fibrinogen concentration and the binding power. In an attempt to investigate further the previously observed relationship between plasma fibrinogen and binding power, varying amounts of purified fibri...
Ref 34Cited 29 Source Cite this paper
Etsuo Niki9
Estimated H-index: 9
(National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology),
Noriko Noguchi8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Tokyo)
It is generally accepted that the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a pivotal role in the progression of atherosclerosis. This suggests that the antioxidants which suppress the oxidative modification of LDL should be effective in preventing atherogenesis. This brief article reviews the role and potency of antioxidants against the oxidation of LDL. It is emphasized that the LDL can be oxidized by different oxidants by different mechanisms and the efficacy of antioxidan...
Ref 45Cited 11 Download Pdf Cite this paper
Joe A. Vinson9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Scranton),
Michael Mandarano3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Scranton),
Donna Shuta4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Scranton)
... more
Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty plaques develop on the inner arterial wall, which eventually obstructs blood flow. Identified risk factors for atherosclerosis include genetics, diet, lifestyle, smoking, circulating lipid and cholesterol levels, and molecular and circulating signals of chronic vascular inflammation. The link between flavonoids and atherosclerosis is based partly on the evidence that some flavonoids possess antioxidant properties and have been shown to ...
Ref 32Cited 73 Source Cite this paper
John A. Buege6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Steven D. Aust8
Estimated H-index: 8
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses microsomal lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is a complex process known to occur in both plants and animals. It involves the formation and propagation of lipid radicals, the uptake of oxygen, a rearrangement of the double bonds in unsaturated lipids, and the eventual destruction of membrane lipids, producing a variety of breakdown products, including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and ethers. Biological membranes are often rich in unsaturated fatty ac...
Ref 40Cited 8222 Source Cite this paper
2001 in cell [IF: 30.41]
Christopher K. Glass10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of California, San Diego),
Joseph L. Witztum10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of California, San Diego)
Ref 105Cited 2315 Source Cite this paper
  • References (63)
  • Cited By (56)
Abdul Rohman8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
Yaakob B. Che Man8
Estimated H-index: 8
Two functional food oils, namely extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) have been analyzed simultaneously using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The performance of multivariate calibration of principle component regression (PCR) and partial least square regression (PLSR) was evaluated in order to give the best prediction model for such determination. FTIR spectra were treated with several treatments including mean centering (MC), derivatization, and standard no...
Ref 14Cited 10 Source
A. M. Marina5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Universiti Putra Malaysia),
Y. B. Che Man10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Universiti Putra Malaysia),
I. Amin4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Universiti Putra Malaysia)
An electronic nose (zNose™) was applied to the detection of adulteration of virgin coconut oil. The system, which is based on a surface acoustic wave sensor was used to generate a pattern of volatile compounds present in the samples. Virgin coconut oil was mixed with refined, bleached and deodorized palm kernel olein at a level of adulteration from 1 to 20% (wt/wt). Adulterant peaks were identified from the chromatogram profile and fitted to a curve using linear regression. The best relationship...
Ref 32Cited 45 Download Pdf Cite this paper
Manikandan Arumugam1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Meera Raman1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Kannan Eagappan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PSG College of Arts and Science)
Objective: The general objective of this study is to formulate beta carotene enriched, vitaminD3 and omega 3 fortified Cold Pressed Virgin Coconut Oil (CPVCO) and to analyze proximate composition and shelf life of beta carotene, vitaminD3 and omega 3 enriched CPVCO. Methods: The CPVCO was prepared out of fresh full fat coconut flakes by cold pressed method. Vitamin D3, beta carotene, Cold Pressed Flax Seed Oil (CPFSO) and orange oil were added to CPVCO and carefully homogenized for 15 to 30 minu...
Ref 11 Source
Manisha DebMandal6
Estimated H-index: 6
(KPC Medical College and Hospital),
Shyamapada Mandal9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Gurudas College)
Abstract Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc . Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural p...
Ref 40Cited 118 Download Pdf Cite this paper
Gopalakrishnan Salil3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Kottayath Govindan Nevin4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Thankappan Rajamohan6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Kerala)
Impaired lipid levels and oxidative stress are indicative of malfunction of endogenous antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of coconut kernel protein (CKP) on the lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzyme activities in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced prior to feeding by injecting a single dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. CKP (8% w/w) was administered to these rats along with a semi-synthetic diet for 45 days. After the experimental pe...
Ref 37Cited 1 Source Cite this paper
Zunita Zakaria7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
M. S. Rofiee9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Muhammad Nazrul Somchit9
Estimated H-index: 9
... more
The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the ra...
Ref 50Cited 41 Download Pdf Cite this paper
2015 in pharmaceutical biology [IF: 1.92]
Yusof Kamisah7
Estimated H-index: 7
(National University of Malaysia),
Vengadesh Periyah1
Estimated H-index: 1
(National University of Malaysia),
Kee Tat Lee1
Estimated H-index: 1
(National University of Malaysia)
... more
AbstractContext: Virgin coconut oil (VCO) contains high antioxidant activity which may have protective effects on the heart in hypertensive rats.Objectives: The study investigated the effects of VCO on blood pressure and cardiac tissue by measuring angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and its histomorphometry in rats fed with a heated palm oil (HPO) diet.Materials and methods: Thirty-two male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (i) control, (ii) orally given VCO (...
Ref 69Cited 14 Download Pdf Cite this paper
A.M. Marina1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Universiti Putra Malaysia),
Y. B. Che Man10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Universiti Putra Malaysia),
I. Amin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Universiti Putra Malaysia)
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is growing in popularity as functional food oil and the public awareness of it is increasing. It is expected that VCO will experience a dramatic growth in the market. The introduction of VCO has open up new research that basically reveals new things besides what has already been known on commercial coconut oil. This paper mainly discusses on some of the findings associated with VCO up to date. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, clinical and authentication ...
Ref 33Cited 111 Source Cite this paper
Chiagoziem A. Otuechere2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Gbemisola Madarikan1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Tinuala Simisola1
Estimated H-index: 1
... more
Background : Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. However, its use is associated with toxic reactions. Virgin coconut oil (VCO), derived from coconut, has been widely used throughout history for its medicinal value. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial actions of VCO against TMP-SMXinduced alterations in serum biochemical end points. Methods: Twenty rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 (control) received no drug, whereas group 2 receiv...
Ref 20Cited 9 Download Pdf Cite this paper
Mohammad Afiq Hamsi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(National University of Malaysia),
Faizah Othman7
Estimated H-index: 7
(National University of Malaysia),
Srijit Das8
Estimated H-index: 8
(National University of Malaysia)
... more
Background : It is a common practice to heat cooking oil and reuse it in order to cut expenses. The use of repeatedly heated cooking oil predisposes to various cardiovascular diseases. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is reported to possess antioxidant action. Aim : The study aimed to determine the effect of heating of VCO on the blood pressure (BP) and inflammatory bio-markers. Methods : Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and were fed with the following diet for 24 weeks: nor...
Ref 41Cited 14 Source Cite this paper