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Interethnic Differences in Muscle, Liver and Abdominal Fat Partitioning in Obese Adolescents

Published on Jun 27, 2007in PLOS ONE2.78
· DOI :10.1371/journal.pone.0000569
David Liska1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Yale University),
Sylvie Dufour15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Yale University)
+ 6 AuthorsSonia Caprio65
Estimated H-index: 65
(Yale University)
Cite
Abstract
The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese youth is rapidly increasing, especially in Hispanics and African Americans compared to Caucasians. Insulin resistance is known to be associated with increases in intramyocellular (IMCL) and hepatic fat content. We determined if there are ethnic differences in IMCL and hepatic fat content in a multiethnic cohort of 55 obese adolescents. We used 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify IMCL levels in the soleus muscle, oral glucose tolerance testing to estimate insulin sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure abdominal fat distribution. Liver fat content was measured by fast–MRI. Despite similar age and % total body fat among the groups, IMCL was significantly higher in the Hispanics (1.71% [1.43%, 2.0%]) than in the African-Americans (1.04% [0.75%, 1.34%], p = 0.013) and the Caucasians (1.2% [0.94%, 1.5%], p = 0.04). Liver fat content was undetectable in the African Americans whereas it was two fold higher than normal in both Caucasians and Hispanics. Visceral fat was significantly lower in African Americans (41.5 cm2 [34.6, 49.6]) and was similar in Caucasians (65.2 cm2 [55.9, 76.0]) and Hispanics (70.5 cm2 [59.9, 83.1]). In a multiple regression analysis, we found that ethnicity independent of age, gender and % body fat accounts for 10% of the difference in IMCL. Our study indicates that obese Hispanic adolescents have a greater IMCL lipid content than both Caucasians and African Americans, of comparable weight, age and gender. Excessive accumulation of fat in the liver was found in both Caucasian and Hispanic groups as opposed to virtually undetectable levels in the African Americans. Thus, irrespective of obesity, there seem to be some clear ethnic differences in the amount of lipid accumulated in skeletal muscle, liver and abdominal cavity.
  • References (21)
  • Citations (99)
Cite
References21
Newest
Anja Beha3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Hans-Paul Juretschke15
Estimated H-index: 15
+ 6 AuthorsAndreas Herling22
Estimated H-index: 22
Intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL) serves as a good biomarker of skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IR). However, intracellular fatty acid metabolites [malonyl-CoA, long-chain acyl-CoA (LCACoA)] rather than IMCL are considered to be responsible for IR. This study aimed to investigate dynamics of IMCL and fatty acid metabolites during fed-to-starved-to-refed transition in lean and obese (IR) Zucker diabetic fatty rats in the following different muscle types: soleus (oxidative), extensor digit...
Published on Sep 1, 2005in International Journal of Obesity4.51
M Roden1
Estimated H-index: 1
Muscle triglycerides and mitochondrial function: possible mechanisms for the development of type 2 diabetes
Published on Jun 1, 2005in Pediatric Diabetes3.35
Fida Bacha31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Boston Children's Hospital),
Rola Saad12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Boston Children's Hospital)
+ 1 AuthorsSilva Arslanian62
Estimated H-index: 62
(Boston Children's Hospital)
: Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with antidiabetogenic properties. The present study investigated: (i) the effect of race on adiponectin levels and (ii) the relationship of adiponectin levels in children to insulin sensitivity and secretion. Fasting adiponectin levels were determined in 22 healthy prepubertal black compared with 22 white children of similar body composition. We previously reported these black children to have lower insulin sensitivity and higher first-phase insulin secretion th...
Published on May 1, 2005in Pediatrics5.40
Jeffrey B. Schwimmer48
Estimated H-index: 48
,
Nancy McGreal4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 2 AuthorsJoel E. Lavine49
Estimated H-index: 49
Objectives. Fatty liver is a common cause of liver disease in children. However, the epidemiology of pediatric fatty liver is limited to single-center case series of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Obesity and insulin resistance are major established risk factors for NAFLD. The role of gender, race, and ethnicity on the prevalence of fatty liver in obese children is unknown. Methods. We recruited obese 12th-grade participants from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Healt...
Published on Mar 1, 2005in Diabetes7.20
Kitt Falk Petersen64
Estimated H-index: 64
(Yale University),
Sylvie Dufour56
Estimated H-index: 56
+ 3 AuthorsGerald I. Shulman142
Estimated H-index: 142
To examine the mechanism by which moderate weight reduction improves basal and insulin-stimulated rates of glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes, we used 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content in conjunction with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps using [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose to assess rates of glucose production and insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose uptake. Eight obese patients with type 2 diabetes were st...
Lidia S. Szczepaniak26
Estimated H-index: 26
(UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center),
Pamela Nurenberg8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)
+ 5 AuthorsRobert L. Dobbins21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)
Despite the increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the criteria used to diagnose the disorder remain poorly defined. Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) accurately measures hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) but has been used only in small research studies. Here, MRS was used to analyze the distribution of HTGC in 2,349 participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS). The reproducibility of the procedure was validated by showing that duplicate HTGC ...
Published on Jul 30, 2004in Journal of Biological Chemistry
Varman T. Samuel46
Estimated H-index: 46
,
Zhen-Xiang Liu19
Estimated H-index: 19
+ 5 AuthorsGerald I. Shulman142
Estimated H-index: 142
Abstract Short term high fat feeding in rats results specifically in hepatic fat accumulation and provides a model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in which to study the mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance. Short term fat feeding (FF) caused a ∼3-fold increase in liver triglyceride and total fatty acyl-CoA content without any significant increase in visceral or skeletal muscle fat content. Suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) by insulin was diminished in the FF group, despi...
Published on Jun 3, 2004in The New England Journal of Medicine70.67
Ram Weiss33
Estimated H-index: 33
,
James Dziura57
Estimated H-index: 57
+ 9 AuthorsJohn H. Morrison109
Estimated H-index: 109
background The prevalence and magnitude of childhood obesity are increasing dramatically. We examined the effect of varying degrees of obesity on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to insulin resistance and to C-reactive protein and adiponectin levels in a large, multiethnic, multiracial cohort of children and adolescents. methods We administered a standard glucose-tolerance test to 439 obese, 31 overweight, and 20 nonobese children and adolescents. Baseline measurements i...
Published on Mar 1, 2004in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism5.61
Catherine W. Yeckel13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
Ram Weiss33
Estimated H-index: 33
+ 5 AuthorsSonia Caprio65
Estimated H-index: 65
Given the extreme increase in prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and the potential for metabolic syndrome in obese youth, identifying simplified indexes for assessing stimulated insulin sensitivity is critical. The purpose of this study was validation of two surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity determined from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): the composite whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI). An obese population (aged 8–18 yr) of normal and ...
Published on Jan 1, 2003in Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications2.68
Nicola Abate34
Estimated H-index: 34
(UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center),
Manisha Chandalia31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)
Abstract The rapid increase of diabetes prevalence in the US population and across all westernized world has been associated with environmental changes that promote obesity. Although dietary factors, such as total caloric intake, relative excess of dietary saturated fats content and lack of fibers, together with reduced level of physical activity clearly determine the main features of the "obesogenic" environment typical of "western" societies, the impact of lifestyle factors on obesity and diab...
Cited By99
Newest
Dylan D. Thomas1
Estimated H-index: 1
(BU: Boston University),
Barbara E. Corkey56
Estimated H-index: 56
(BMC: Boston Medical Center)
+ 1 AuthorsCaroline M. Apovian44
Estimated H-index: 44
(BU: Boston University)
Published on Jan 25, 2019in Pediatric Obesity3.71
Catherine E. Cioffi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Emory University),
Jessica A. Alvarez14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Emory University)
+ 1 AuthorsMiriam B. Vos27
Estimated H-index: 27
(Emory University)
Sarah Cuschieri5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Malta)
Abstract Aim Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a complex disease. Interactions between genetic susceptible variants and environmental cues results in the development of this heterogenous disease. Having an understanding of the genetics of T2DM may lead to a better perspective and management of the pathogenesis contributing to T2DM. Materials and methods Published primary and secondary sources were reviewed covering the keywords “genetics + type 2 diabetes” using PubMed and Google Scholar as the main dat...
Published on Apr 1, 2019in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism5.61
O. Hakim1
Estimated H-index: 1
('KCL': King's College London),
Riccardo C. Bonadonna53
Estimated H-index: 53
(University of Parma)
+ 9 AuthorsA. Margot Umpleby21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Surrey)
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Journal of Adolescent Health3.96
SoJung Lee34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Kyung Hee University),
Silva Arslanian62
Estimated H-index: 62
(University of Pittsburgh)
Abstract Purpose We compared body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) versus metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO) adolescents in 189 black and white adolescents (BMI ≥ 85th percentile, 12–18 years of age). Methods Participants were defined as MHO or MUO if their insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, measured by a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, was in the upper quartile or in the lower three quartiles. Total fat ...
Published on Dec 13, 2018in Comprehensive Physiology6.25
Maggie S. Burhans1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UW: University of Washington),
Derek K. Hagman9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)
+ 2 AuthorsMario Kratz19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UW: University of Washington)
Published on Sep 1, 2018in Acta Radiologica1.59
Fang Yuan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Sichuan University),
Bin Song4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Sichuan University)
+ 2 AuthorsXijiao Liu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Sichuan University)
BackgroundDual-echo imaging is a routine clinical magnetic resonance (MR) sequence affected by T1 and T2* relaxation effect in fat quantification. The separate impacts of T1 and T2* relaxation effect in pancreatic fat quantification using dual-echo imaging at 3.0-T MR have not been reported in detail.PurposeTo demonstrate the separate T1 and T2* relaxation effect on pancreatic fat quantification by dual-echo imaging at 3.0-T MR and the simplified correction strategy is discussed for convenient c...
Published on Aug 1, 2018in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics7.73
Curtis K. Argo27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Virginia Health System),
Jonathan G. Stine1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Virginia Health System)
+ 4 AuthorsStephen H. Caldwell49
Estimated H-index: 49
(University of Virginia Health System)
Published on Jun 15, 2018in Children today
Gert-Jan van der Heijden2
Estimated H-index: 2
(BCM: Baylor College of Medicine),
Zhiyue J. Wang32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)
+ 3 AuthorsAgneta L. Sunehag24
Estimated H-index: 24
(BCM: Baylor College of Medicine)
Hispanic adolescent girls with normal BMI frequently have high body fat %. Without knowledge of body fat content and distribution, their risk for metabolic complications is unknown. We measured metabolic risk indicators and abdominal fat distribution in post-pubertal Hispanic adolescent girls with Normal BMI (N-BMI: BMI < 85th percentile) and compared these indicators between girls with Normal BMI and High Fat content (N-BMI-HF: body fat ≥ 27%; n = 15) and Normal BMI and Normal Fat content (N-BM...
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