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Interethnic Differences in Muscle, Liver and Abdominal Fat Partitioning in Obese Adolescents

Published on Jun 27, 2007in PLOS ONE2.776
· DOI :10.1371/journal.pone.0000569
David Liska1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Yale University),
Sylvie Dufour16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Yale University)
+ 6 AuthorsSonia Caprio65
Estimated H-index: 65
(Yale University)
Abstract
The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese youth is rapidly increasing, especially in Hispanics and African Americans compared to Caucasians. Insulin resistance is known to be associated with increases in intramyocellular (IMCL) and hepatic fat content. We determined if there are ethnic differences in IMCL and hepatic fat content in a multiethnic cohort of 55 obese adolescents. We used 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify IMCL levels in the soleus muscle, oral glucose tolerance testing to estimate insulin sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure abdominal fat distribution. Liver fat content was measured by fast–MRI. Despite similar age and % total body fat among the groups, IMCL was significantly higher in the Hispanics (1.71% [1.43%, 2.0%]) than in the African-Americans (1.04% [0.75%, 1.34%], p = 0.013) and the Caucasians (1.2% [0.94%, 1.5%], p = 0.04). Liver fat content was undetectable in the African Americans whereas it was two fold higher than normal in both Caucasians and Hispanics. Visceral fat was significantly lower in African Americans (41.5 cm2 [34.6, 49.6]) and was similar in Caucasians (65.2 cm2 [55.9, 76.0]) and Hispanics (70.5 cm2 [59.9, 83.1]). In a multiple regression analysis, we found that ethnicity independent of age, gender and % body fat accounts for 10% of the difference in IMCL. Our study indicates that obese Hispanic adolescents have a greater IMCL lipid content than both Caucasians and African Americans, of comparable weight, age and gender. Excessive accumulation of fat in the liver was found in both Caucasian and Hispanic groups as opposed to virtually undetectable levels in the African Americans. Thus, irrespective of obesity, there seem to be some clear ethnic differences in the amount of lipid accumulated in skeletal muscle, liver and abdominal cavity.
  • References (21)
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References21
Newest
Intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL) serves as a good biomarker of skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IR). However, intracellular fatty acid metabolites [malonyl-CoA, long-chain acyl-CoA (LCACoA)] rather than IMCL are considered to be responsible for IR. This study aimed to investigate dynamics of IMCL and fatty acid metabolites during fed-to-starved-to-refed transition in lean and obese (IR) Zucker diabetic fatty rats in the following different muscle types: soleus (oxidative), extensor digit...
22 CitationsSource
Muscle triglycerides and mitochondrial function: possible mechanisms for the development of type 2 diabetes
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#1Fida Bacha (Boston Children's Hospital)H-Index: 31
#2Rola Saad (Boston Children's Hospital)H-Index: 12
Last. Silva A. Arslanian (Boston Children's Hospital)H-Index: 64
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: Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with antidiabetogenic properties. The present study investigated: (i) the effect of race on adiponectin levels and (ii) the relationship of adiponectin levels in children to insulin sensitivity and secretion. Fasting adiponectin levels were determined in 22 healthy prepubertal black compared with 22 white children of similar body composition. We previously reported these black children to have lower insulin sensitivity and higher first-phase insulin secretion th...
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#2Nancy McGrealH-Index: 4
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Objectives. Fatty liver is a common cause of liver disease in children. However, the epidemiology of pediatric fatty liver is limited to single-center case series of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Obesity and insulin resistance are major established risk factors for NAFLD. The role of gender, race, and ethnicity on the prevalence of fatty liver in obese children is unknown. Methods. We recruited obese 12th-grade participants from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Healt...
275 CitationsSource
#1Kitt Falk Petersen (Yale University)H-Index: 59
#2Sylvie DufourH-Index: 58
Last. Gerald I. ShulmanH-Index: 144
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To examine the mechanism by which moderate weight reduction improves basal and insulin-stimulated rates of glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes, we used 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content in conjunction with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps using [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose to assess rates of glucose production and insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose uptake. Eight obese patients with type 2 diabetes were st...
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Despite the increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the criteria used to diagnose the disorder remain poorly defined. Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) accurately measures hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) but has been used only in small research studies. Here, MRS was used to analyze the distribution of HTGC in 2,349 participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS). The reproducibility of the procedure was validated by showing that duplicate HTGC ...
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Abstract Short term high fat feeding in rats results specifically in hepatic fat accumulation and provides a model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in which to study the mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance. Short term fat feeding (FF) caused a ∼3-fold increase in liver triglyceride and total fatty acyl-CoA content without any significant increase in visceral or skeletal muscle fat content. Suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) by insulin was diminished in the FF group, despi...
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background The prevalence and magnitude of childhood obesity are increasing dramatically. We examined the effect of varying degrees of obesity on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to insulin resistance and to C-reactive protein and adiponectin levels in a large, multiethnic, multiracial cohort of children and adolescents. methods We administered a standard glucose-tolerance test to 439 obese, 31 overweight, and 20 nonobese children and adolescents. Baseline measurements i...
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Given the extreme increase in prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and the potential for metabolic syndrome in obese youth, identifying simplified indexes for assessing stimulated insulin sensitivity is critical. The purpose of this study was validation of two surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity determined from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): the composite whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI). An obese population (aged 8–18 yr) of normal and ...
268 CitationsSource
#1Nicola Abate (UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)H-Index: 34
#2Manisha Chandalia (UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)H-Index: 32
Abstract The rapid increase of diabetes prevalence in the US population and across all westernized world has been associated with environmental changes that promote obesity. Although dietary factors, such as total caloric intake, relative excess of dietary saturated fats content and lack of fibers, together with reduced level of physical activity clearly determine the main features of the "obesogenic" environment typical of "western" societies, the impact of lifestyle factors on obesity and diab...
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