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Anger, aggression and road rage behaviour in Malaysian drivers

Published on Feb 1, 2015in Transportation Research Part F-traffic Psychology and Behaviour
· DOI :10.1016/j.trf.2015.01.006
Mark J.M. Sullman22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Cranfield University),
Amanda N. Stephens17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Monash University, Clayton campus),
Michelle Yong2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Hertfordshire)
Sources
Abstract
This study tested the four factor structure of the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) in a sample of young Malaysian drivers and the relationship these factors had with several other variables. Confirmatory Factor Analysis broadly supported the four factor solution of the DAX, being: Personal Physical Aggressive Expression, Use of a Vehicle to Express Anger, Verbal Aggressive Expression and Adaptive/Constructive expression. The short version of the Driving Anger Scale was positively correlated with the three types of aggressive responses and not surprisingly with a variable comprised of all three types of aggressive responses (Total Aggressive Expression). Total Aggressive Expression was higher for males and negatively related to age, years licensed and slower preferred driving speed. All three of the aggressive forms of expression had significant relationships with crash-related conditions, such as: loss of concentration, losing control of their vehicle, having received a ticket and involvement in near-misses. In particular, all three of the aggressive forms of expression had significant relationships with losing control of the vehicle and Total Aggressive Expression was correlated with all crash-related conditions. In addition, Personal Physical Aggressive Expression and Total Aggressive Expression were both significantly related to crash involvement.
  • References (47)
  • Citations (21)
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References47
Newest
#1Mark J.M. Sullman (Cranfield University)H-Index: 22
This research used the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) to investigate the expression of driving anger amongst a sample of New Zealand drivers. Confirmatory Factor Analysis found that the data fitted a three factor solution, which consisted of: Verbal Aggressive Expression; Use of a Vehicle to express anger, and an Adaptive/Constructive factor. The Personal Physical Aggressive Expression factor was not supported in the present sample. However, in line with previous findings, the present ...
35 CitationsSource
#1Amanda N. Stephens (Monash University)H-Index: 17
#2Mark J.M. Sullman (Cranfield University)H-Index: 22
The present study developed a revised version of the driving anger expression inventory (25-items) and a short (15-item) version using data from 551 drivers. Split half factor analyses on both versions confirmed the original four factors; personal physical aggressive expression, use of a vehicle to express anger, verbal aggressive expression and adaptive/constructive expression. The two DAX versions were strongly correlated, demonstrating the suitability of both forms of the scale and the aggres...
22 CitationsSource
#1Amanda N. Stephens (VU: Victoria University, Australia)H-Index: 17
#2Keis Ohtsuka (VU: Victoria University, Australia)H-Index: 11
Anger has been shown to be a motivating factor in aggression and it is widely accepted that driving anger may lead to aggressive driving. However, the link between anger and aggressive driving is likely to be mediated by drivers’ pre-existing cognitive biases and the subsequent situational evaluations made. This study investigated the extent to which optimism bias, illusion of control beliefs and driver anger predict self-reported hostile driving behaviours. A total of 220 licensed drivers (106 ...
19 CitationsSource
#1Fay GravesH-Index: 1
#2Daryl LloydH-Index: 2
Last. Anil BhagatH-Index: 3
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This publication presents detailed statistics (headline figures were first published in June 2014) about the circumstances of personal injury accidents, including the types of vehicles involved, the resulting casualties and factors which may contribute to accidents. Most of the statistics in the report are based on information about accidents reported to the police. However, other sources such as mortality, survey and hospital data are also used as well as population and traffic data to provide ...
29 Citations
#1Amanda N. Stephens (VU: Victoria University, Australia)H-Index: 17
#2John A. Groeger (University of Hull)H-Index: 31
Two experiments investigated the effects of lead-driver status on the anger-experienced and aggression-expressed in traffic scenarios in which the lead drivers’ actions were determined by an event obviously beyond, or within, their control. Experiment I contrasted reactions to lead-cars bearing Learner driver markings (Low Status) or similar unmarked cars (Control), while Experiment II contrasted reactions to Ambulances (High Status) or otherwise identical generic work vans (Control). Reported a...
30 CitationsSource
#1Mark J.M. Sullman (Cranfield University)H-Index: 22
#2Amanda N. Stephens (VU: Victoria University, Australia)H-Index: 17
Abstract The present study investigated the factor structures of the 14-item version of the DAS (Driving Anger Scale) and the Propensity for Angry Driving Scale (PADS) using a sample of New Zealand drivers drawn from the general population. The two scales were also investigated with regards to their relationships with general trait anger, risky driving behaviour, along with crash involvement and a variety of crash-related conditions. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported both scales as unidimen...
41 CitationsSource
#1Mark J.M. Sullman (Cranfield University)H-Index: 22
#2Amanda N. Stephens (UCC: University College Cork)H-Index: 17
Last. Duygu Kuzu (IUE: İzmir University of Economics)H-Index: 1
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The present study tested the four factor structure of the DAX on a sample of Turkish taxi drivers and the relationship these factors had with a number of other variables. Confirmatory Factor Analysis found that the data broadly fit the four factor solution of the DAX. These factors included three aggressive expressions: Verbal Aggressive Expression; Personal Physical Aggressive Expression; Use of a Vehicle to Express anger, and one Adaptive/Constructive factor. Driving experience was negatively ...
45 CitationsSource
The present research verified the psychometric properties of the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX; Deffenbacher, Lynch, Oetting, & Swaim, 2002) on a Romanian sample (n = 262). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure: Verbal and Physical Aggressive Expression (α = .86), Adaptive/Constructive Expression (α = .88) and Using the Vehicle for Aggressive Expression (α = .83). The aggressive forms of expressing anger were summed up in the Total Driving Aggressive Expression ...
23 CitationsSource
The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) (Deffenbacher, Lynch, Oetting, & Swaim, 2002) in a Spanish sample of 432 drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of five factors: Verbal Aggressive Expression ([alpha] = .91), Personal Physical Aggressive Expression ([alpha] = .79), Use the Vehicle to Express Anger ([alpha] = .82), Displaced Aggression ([alpha] = .78), and Adaptative/Constructive Expression ([alpha] = .81). Dire...
45 CitationsSource
#1Amanda N. Stephens (Edin.: University of Edinburgh)H-Index: 17
#2John A. Groeger (UCC: University College Cork)H-Index: 31
Anger and aggression on the road may sometimes appear unprovoked and unrelated to current driving circumstances. It is unclear whether such anger and aggression arises because of events prior to those circumstances in which anger is experienced and aggression is exhibited. In this study, time pressure and enforced following of a slowly moving vehicle were used to increase drivers’ anger in order to assess whether affect and behaviour during a subsequent, non-provocative, drive would change accor...
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#1Mark J.M. Sullman (University of Nicosia)H-Index: 22
#2Amanda N. Stephens (Monash University, Clayton campus)H-Index: 17
Last. Joanne E. Taylor (Massey University)H-Index: 17
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Abstract It is well established that angry and, subsequently, aggressive drivers pose a problem for road safety. Over recent years, there has been an increase in the number of published studies examining driver anger, particularly using the Driving Anger Scale (DAS). The DAS measures six broad types of situations likely to provoke anger while driving (i.e., police presence, illegal driving, discourtesy, traffic obstructions, slower drivers, and hostile gestures). The majority of the recent studi...
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#1Ana María Hernández-Hernández (UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico)
#2Jesús M. Siqueiros-García (UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico)H-Index: 2
Last. Carlos Gershenson (UNAM: National Autonomous University of Mexico)H-Index: 27
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This study aims to analyze the level of anger developed by drivers in Mexico City and also understand the behavior that those drivers use to express that anger, using four different survey methods. The first focuses on personal information, the second Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX), the third refers to a shorten version of Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the fourth being the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). These have previously been applied and validated in several different countri...
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#1Gaoqiang Fei (SEU: Southeast University)
#2Xujun Zhang (SEU: Southeast University)H-Index: 7
Last. Henry Xiang (The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital)H-Index: 1
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AbstractObjective: Driving anger is a common emotion while driving and has been associated with traffic crashes. This study aimed to investigate situations that increase driving anger among Chinese...
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#1Sergio A. Useche (University of Valencia)H-Index: 8
#2Boris Cendales (El Bosque University)H-Index: 6
Last. Juan C. Pastor (University of Valencia)H-Index: 1
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Abstract This study analyzes the association between trait driving anger and driving styles in a sample of Colombian professional drivers. Additionally, the internal and external validity of the Deffenbacher's Driving Anger Scale (DAS-14) was examined in the study population. The DAS-14 and the Spanish Version of the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory (S-MDSI) were administered to 492 urban bus and taxi operators. Average trait driving anger scores in the study population were similar to t...
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#1Guilherme Olandoski (Paris 8 University)
#2Alessandra Bianchi (UFPR: Federal University of Paraná)H-Index: 1
Last. Patricia Delhomme (IFSTTAR)H-Index: 21
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Abstract Introduction : In Brazil, driver aggressiveness in road traffic is a critical issue and could be an important contributing factor to the high number of traffic accidents. Because no instruments are available in Portuguese to register driving aggressiveness or driving anger in Brazil, we adapted English instruments into the Brazilian context. The aims of this study were to provide a Brazilian adaptation of the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) and to try to validate it by testing ...
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Abstract Although interest in driver anger has increased over the past few decades, the scales for measuring the tendency to driving anger have remained relatively unchanged in terms of the items within them. However, in more recent studies, researchers have found it necessary to modify these instruments, sometimes considerably, suggesting that scales to measure how drivers feel about driving require updating. This paper reports two studies aimed at developing an updated measure for trait driver...
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Abstract Anger and aggression on the road have been pointed out as two of the main predictors of road accidents. However, while the emotional (anger) and behavioral (aggression) components of hostility have been deeply studied, the cognitive part has not received the same attention in this specific context. Thus, it is important to provide psychometric tools for assessing aggressive thoughts during driving, as the literature showed that cognitions play an important role in aggressive behavior. T...
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