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Students' transition from an engineering model to a science model of experimentation
Abstract
This study investigates the hypothesis that when children are engaged in science experiments, the goal of which is to understand relations among causes and effects, they often use the engineering model of experimentation, characterized by the more familiar goal of manipulating variables to produce a desired outcome. Sixteen fifth- and sixth-graders worked on two experimentation problems consistent with the engineering and science models, respectively. The context in which these problems were framed was also varied, to encourage adoption of either an engineering or science model. Over six 40-min sessions, the group achieved significant increases in the percentages of inferences about variables that were both correct and valid. Improvement was greatest for those who began with the engineering problem and then went on to the science problem. The science model was associated with broader exploration, more selectiveness about evidence interpreted, and greater attention to establishing that some variables are not causal. The findings suggest that research on scientific inquiry processes should attend not only to the science content students are reasoning about, but also to their beliefs about the goals of inquiry.
  • References (10)
  • Cited By (266)
Deanna Kuhn50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Harvard University),
Erin Phelps23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Harvard University)
Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the process of development. It describes a method designed to permit the study of developmental process and presents an initial and a replication study that illustrates the kinds of data and insights this method yields. An approach that involves the observation of a subject engaged in repeated encounters with a problem is employed. The focus is on gauging the reliability of subjects' performance, that is, the extent to which a subject displayed consisten...
Ref 32Cited 128
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Deanna Kuhn50
Estimated H-index: 50
(Columbia University),
Eric Amsel9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Michael O'Loughlin9
Estimated H-index: 9
D. Kuhn, Introduction. The Development of Scientific Thinking. Related Work. D. Kuhn and E. Amsel with the assistance of L. Schauble, The Evaluation of Evidence. The Interpretation of Covariation and Noncovariation Evidence. The Influence of Theory on Evaluation of Evidence. The Reconstruction of Theory and Evidence. D. Kuhn and M. O'Loughlin with the assistance of W. Yotive, The Coordination of Theory and Evidence. Replication: The Evaluation of Evidence. The Interpretation of Insufficient and ...
Cited 596
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Jerome S. Bruner70
Estimated H-index: 70
(Harvard University),
Jacqueline J. Goodnow29
Estimated H-index: 29
,
George A. Austin2
Estimated H-index: 2
A Study of Thinking is a pioneering account of how human beings achieve a measure of rationality in spite of the constraints imposed by bias, limited attention and memory, and the risks of error imposed by pressures of time and ignorance. First published in 1956 and hailed at its appearance as a groundbreaking study, it is still read three decades later as a major contribution to our understanding of the mind. In their insightful new introduction, the authors relate the book to the cognitive rev...
Cited 2511
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John Dewey65
Estimated H-index: 65
Cited 662
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1974 in Cognition
Annette Karmiloff-Smith60
Estimated H-index: 60
(University of Geneva),
Bärbel Inhelder1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Geneva)
Abstract Although Genevan research has provided a detailed analysis of cognitive structures, our knowledge of cognitive processes remains fragmentary. The focus is now not only on macro-development but also on changes occurring in children's spontaneous action sequences in micro-formation. A series of experiments designed to study goal-oriented behavior is in progress. This paper describes the action sequences of 67 subjects between 4;6 and 9;5 years in a block balancing task. It is not a study ...
Ref 17Cited 492
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Leona Schauble24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Robert Glaser43
Estimated H-index: 43
,
Kalyani Raghavan10
Estimated H-index: 10
... more
This study explores how novices' conceptions about electric circuits affected their self-directed experimentation in a computer-based circuit laboratory. The participants, 22 undergraduates with no formal college instruction in physics, worked individually on an initial problem to assess their conceptual models of circuits and in subsequent sessions on open-ended experimentation with the computer laboratory, attempted to rediscover the laws of electric circuits. Analysis of the initial problem i...
Ref 22Cited 133
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Leona Schauble7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Pittsburgh)
Evolving beliefs and reasoning strategies were observed in 22 fifth- and sixth-grade children who worked over 8 weeks for a total of about 5 h on a causal reasoning problem. Children planned, performed, and interpreted experiments to learn about the relations between design features and speed of race cars in a computerized microworld. The group made progress, but by the end of the sessions did not fully understand those features that disconfirmed their initial beliefs. In their activity with the...
Ref 23Cited 306
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1980 in Child Development [IF: 4.20]
Judith E. Tschirgi4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Bell Labs)
TsCHmcI, JUDrTH E. Sensible Reasoning: A Hypothesis about Hypotheses. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1980, 51, 1-10. This study investigated the asserted differences in reasoning between adults and second, fourth, and sixth graders in a manipulation-of-variables task using common everyday situations. It is proposed that hypothesis-testing skills used in this task do not necessarily develop from an understanding of the logic of classes. These skills may develop through experience in manipulating elements in ...
Ref 11Cited 215
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1987 in Psychological Review [IF: 7.64]
Joshua Klayman17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Chicago),
Young-won Ha2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Chicago)
Strategies for hypothesis testing in scientific investigation and everyday reasoning have interested both psychologists and philosophers. A number of these scholars stress the importance of disconfir. marion in reasoning and suggest that people are instead prone to a general deleterious "confirmation bias" In particula~ it is suggested that people tend to test those cases that have the best chance of verifying current beliefs rather than those that have the best chance of falsifying them. We sho...
Ref 97Cited 1298
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David Klahr39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Carnegie Mellon University),
Kevin Dunbar31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Carnegie Mellon University)
The purpose of the two studies reported here wos to develop an integrated model of the scientific reasoning process. Subjects were placed in a simulated scientific discovery context by first teaching them how to use an electronic device and then asking them to discover how a hitherto unencountered function worked. To do this task. subjects had to formulate hypotheses bas’ed on their prior knowledge, conduct experiments, and evaluate the results of their experiments. In t,he first study, using 20...
Ref 64Cited 680
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  • References (10)
  • Cited By (266)
Junlei Li3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Carnegie Mellon University),
David Klahr39
Estimated H-index: 39
Ref 48Cited 12
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William Barowy2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Nancy Roberts5
Estimated H-index: 5
“What’s the point?” Asked a middle-school student who was given the task of exploring modeling software with her partner in a clinical interview. Having no prior exposure to the computer model, and having been given no other directions than what they needed to run a simulation, she and her partner questioned the authenticity of the moment. They had just met the interviewers, and a camcorder was located behind them, pointed over their shoulders at the computer screen. In the process of designing ...
Ref 51Cited 5
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Dennis Maciuszek1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Education, Winneba),
Alke Martens8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Education, Winneba),
Ulrike Lucke8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Potsdam)
... more
This chapter discusses the potential of using virtual worlds for inquiry-based teaching of science and engineering topics, particularly in the form of interactive experiments. It draws on experiences with a virtual lab for learning cognitive modelling and applied artificial intelligence (AI) in a university setting, realised within Linden Lab’s multi-user virtual environment Second Life (SL). The main observation was that the students, although experienced programmers, had a tough start in makin...
Ref 15Cited 1
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Jo Ann Trygestad1
Estimated H-index: 1
A review of studies on chaos theory suggests that some elements of the theory (systems, fractals, initial effects, and bifurcations) may be applied to classroom learning. Chaos theory considers learning holistic, constructive, and dynamic. Some researchers suggest that applying chaos theory to the classroom enhances learning by reinforcing systemic approaches to human interactions, encouraging cultural diversity as beneficial, and reaffirming theoretical notions of intelligence as dynamically mu...
Ref 24Cited 15
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Marcus Hammann1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Titan Hoi Phan1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Horst Bayrhuber1
Estimated H-index: 1
Auf Grundlage des “Scientific Discovery as Dual Search”- Modells (SDDS) wurde ein Test zur Messung von Kompetenzen beim Experimentieren entwickelt, um zu uberprufen, ob sich die drei Dimensionen des Experimentierens anhand von Multiple-Choice-Aufgaben in reliable Skalen uberfuhren lassen. Da dies mit zufriedenstellender Reliabilitat gelang, wurde die Binnenstruktur des Konstrukts „Experimentieren als Problemlosen“ untersucht. Dies geschah faktorenanalytisch und korrelationsstatistisch sowie mit ...
Ref 19Cited 10
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Joseph Krajcik62
Estimated H-index: 62
(University of Michigan),
Mary L. Starr4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Michigan)
Science education standards (NRC 1996) stress ideas associated with teaching for understanding and developing ways for students to transform rather than absorb knowledge. The approach to teaching that is advocated by the standards is one based on inquiry. As stated in theNational Science Education Standards“Inquiry into authentic questions generated from student experiences is the central strategy for teaching science” (p. 3).
Ref 18Cited 17
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Sibel Erduran2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Vanderbilt University)
This paper reports on an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for the characterization of models and modeling that can be useful in application to chemistry education. The underlying argument marks a departure from an emphasis on concepts that are the outcomes of chemical inquiry about how knowledge growth occurs through modeling in chemistry. An outline is presented that provides reasons why modeling is a significant goal for chemistry education, the role of models and modeling are closely e...
Ref 86Cited 2
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