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Emerging and continuing trends in vaccine opposition website content

Published on Feb 24, 2011in Vaccine 3.27
· DOI :10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.003
Sandra J. Bean2
Estimated H-index: 2
(OSU: Oregon State University)
Abstract Context Anti-vaccination websites appeal to persons searching the Internet for vaccine information that reinforces their predilection to avoid vaccination for themselves or their children. Few published studies have systematically examined these sites. Objectives The aim of this study was to employ content analysis as a useful tool for examining and comparing anti-vaccination websites for recurring and changing emphases in content, design, and credibility themes since earlier anti-vaccination website content analyses were conducted. Methods Between February and May 2010, using a commonly available search engine followed by a deep web search, 25 websites that contained anti-vaccination content were reviewed and analyzed for 24 content, 14 design, and 13 credibility attributes. Results Although several content claims remained similar to earlier analyses, two new themes emerged: (1) the 2009 H1N1 epidemic threat was “manufactured,” and (2) the increasing presence of so-called “expert” testimony in opposing vaccination. Conclusion Anti-vaccination websites are constantly changing in response to the trends in public health and the success of vaccination. Monitoring the changes can permit public health workers to mount programs more quickly to counter the opposition arguments. Additionally, opposition claims commonly appeal to emotions whereas the supporting claims appeal to reason. Effective vaccine support may be better served by including more emotionally compelling content.
  • References (36)
  • Citations (90)
Published on Jan 14, 2011in MMWR supplements
Hinman Ar1
Estimated H-index: 1
Orenstein Wa1
Estimated H-index: 1
Anne Schuchat77
Estimated H-index: 77
Published on Apr 1, 2010in Journal of Health Psychology 2.26
Cornelia Betsch16
Estimated H-index: 16
(University of Erfurt),
Frank Renkewitz10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Erfurt)
+ 1 AuthorsCorina Ulshöfer2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Erfurt)
This large-scale Internet-experiment tests whether vaccine-critical pages raise perceptions of the riskiness of vaccinations and alter vaccination intentions. We manipulated the information environment (vaccine-critical website, control, both) and the focus of search (on vaccination risks, omission risks, no focus). Our analyses reveal that accessing vaccine-critical websites for five to 10 minutes increases the perception of risk of vaccinating and decreases the perception of risk of omitting v...
Published on Feb 1, 2010in Vaccine 3.27
Anna Kata5
Estimated H-index: 5
(McMaster University)
The Internet plays a large role in disseminating anti-vaccination information. This paper builds upon previous research by analyzing the arguments proffered on anti-vaccination websites, determining the extent of misinformation present, and examining discourses used to support vaccine objections. Arguments around the themes of safety and effectiveness, alternative medicine, civil liberties, conspiracy theories, and morality were found on the majority of websites analyzed; misinformation was also...
Published on Jan 1, 2010in Nature 43.07
Dan M. Kahan35
Estimated H-index: 35
(Yale University)
There is a culture war in America over science. Why? And what should be done to promote the ability of culturally diverse citizens to agree on how science can inform their common interests in health, security, and prosperity? This article uses the findings of Cultural Cognition Project studies to address these question.
Published on Jan 1, 2010in Library Philosophy and Practice
Rabia Iffat1
Estimated H-index: 1
Lalitha K. Sami3
Estimated H-index: 3
Introduction The most coveted commodity of the information age is indeed information. Information has become a basic need after food, shelter, and clothing. Due to technological advancements, a large amount of information is available on the Web, which has become a complex entity containing information from a variety of sources. Information is found using search engines. A searcher has access to a large amount of information, but it still far from the huge treasury of information lying beneath t...
Published on May 7, 2009in The New England Journal of Medicine 70.67
Saad B. Omer43
Estimated H-index: 43
(Emory University),
Daniel A. Salmon34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Johns Hopkins University)
+ 2 AuthorsNeal A. Halsey60
Estimated H-index: 60
(Johns Hopkins University)
Vaccines are among the most effective prevention tools available to clinicians. However, the success of an immunization program depends on high rates of acceptance and coverage. There is evidence of an increase in vaccine refusal in the United States and of geographic clustering of refusals that results in outbreaks. Children with exemptions from school immunization requirements (a measure of vaccine refusal) are at increased risk for measles and pertussis and can infect others who are too young...
Published on Jan 1, 2009in American Journal of Health Behavior 1.44
Deborah A. Gust22
Estimated H-index: 22
(CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention),
Allison Kennedy22
Estimated H-index: 22
(CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
+ 3 AuthorsDaniel A. Salmon34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract To compare attitudes of parents who filed or considered filing an exemption to school immunization requirements and/or would not have their child immunized if it were not required by law (cases) to controls. To develop and evaluate a brochure intervention for parents considering an exemption. Interviews, focus groups, mailed surveys. Cases had more negative attitudes about vaccines than controls did. Although the brochure did not significantly improve parents' immunization attitudes com...
Cited By90
Published on Apr 20, 2018in Health Communication 1.85
Sabrina Heike Kessler3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UZH: University of Zurich),
Arne Freya Zillich2
Estimated H-index: 2
(FSU: University of Jena)
ABSTRACTIn Germany, the Internet is gaining increasing importance for laypeople as a source of health information, including information about vaccination. While previous research has focused on the characteristics of online information about vaccination, this study investigated the influence of relevant user-specific cognitive factors on users’ search behavior for online information about vaccination. Additionally, it examined how searching online for information about vaccination influences us...
Published on Mar 23, 2018in Health Promotion International 1.91
Tsuyoshi Okuhara3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UTokyo: University of Tokyo),
Hirono Ishikawa21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UTokyo: University of Tokyo)
+ 2 AuthorsTakahiro Kiuchi15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UTokyo: University of Tokyo)
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Health Education & Behavior 2.19
Jo Ann Shoup13
Estimated H-index: 13
(KP: Kaiser Permanente),
Komal J. Narwaney10
Estimated H-index: 10
(KP: Kaiser Permanente)
+ 4 AuthorsJason M. Glanz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(University of Colorado Denver)
The internet is an important source of vaccine information for parents. We evaluated and compared the interactive content on an expert moderated vaccine social media (VSM) website developed for parents of children 24 months of age or younger and enrolled in a health care system to a random sample of interactions extracted from publicly available parenting and vaccine-focused blogs and discussion forums. The study observation period was September 2013 through July 2016. Three hundred sixty-seven ...
Published on May 13, 2019 in WWW (The Web Conference)
Kyriaki Kalimeri7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Institute for Scientific Interchange),
Mariano G. Beiró4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 3 AuthorsCiro Cattuto33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Institute for Scientific Interchange)
Psychological, political, cultural, and even societal factors are entangled in the reasoning and decision-making process towards vaccination, rendering vaccine hesitancy a complex issue. Here, administering a series of surveys via a Facebook-hosted application, we study the worldviews of people that “Liked” supportive or vaccine resilient Facebook Pages. In particular, we assess differences in political viewpoints, moral values, personality traits, and general interests, finding that those scept...
Published on Apr 9, 2019
Zhan Xu (NAU: Northern Arizona University)
People tend to read health articles that have gone viral online. A large portion of online popular vaccine articles are against vaccines, which lead to increased exemption rates and recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Since anti-vaccine articles’ themes and persuasive strategies change fast, their effects on viewers’ behaviors may change over time. This study examined how pro- and anti-vaccine topics and public interests have changed from 2007 to 2017. Computational methods (e.g., ...
Published on Apr 1, 2019in Public Understanding of Science 2.75
Mark Davis4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Melbourne)
Online media has provided unprecedented opportunities for anti-vaccination groups to spread their message. An extensive scholarly literature has consequently emerged to analyse such discourse and develop strategies for countering it. In this article, I take a different approach. My contention is that it is no longer appropriate to approach anti-vaccination discourse as a stand-alone formation. Such sites, I argue, building on work by McKenzie Wark and Bart Cammaerts, are increasingly part of a w...
Published on Apr 28, 2019in arXiv: Information Retrieval
Eliza Harrison , Paige Martin1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsAdam G. Dunn16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Macquarie University)
Research communications often introduce biases or misrepresentations without providing reliable links to the research they use so readers can check the veracity of the claims being made. We tested the feasibility of a tool that can be used to automatically recommend research articles to research communications. From 207,538 vaccination-related PubMed articles, we selected 3,573 unique links to webpages using Altmetric. We tested a method for ranking research articles relative to each webpage usi...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Journal of Biomedical Semantics 1.58
Muhammad Amith2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston),
Cui Tao14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston)
Background In this paper, we discuss the design and development of a formal ontology to describe misinformation about vaccines. Vaccine misinformation is one of the drivers leading to vaccine hesitancy in patients. While there are various levels of vaccine hesitancy to combat and specific interventions to address those levels, it is important to have tools that help researchers understand this problem. With an ontology, not only can we collect and analyze varied misunderstandings about vaccines,...