Match!

Functional rarefaction: estimating functional diversity from field data

Published on Feb 1, 2008in Oikos3.468
· DOI :10.1111/j.2007.0030-1299.16171.x
Steven C. Walker14
Estimated H-index: 14
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Mark S. Poos11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Donald A. Jackson43
Estimated H-index: 43
Abstract
Studies in biodiversity-ecosystem function and conservation biology have led to the development of diversity indices that take species' functional differences into account. We identify two broad classes of indices: those that monotonically increase with species richness (MSR indices) and those that weight the contribution of each species by abundance or occurrence (weighted indices). We argue that weighted indices are easier to estimate without bias but tend to ignore information provided by rare species. Conversely, MSR indices fully incorporate information provided by rare species but are nearly always underestimated when communities are not exhaustively surveyed. This is because of the well-studied fact that additional sampling of a community may reveal previously undiscovered species. We use the rarefaction technique from species richness studies to address sample-size-induced bias when estimating functional diversity indices. Rarefaction transforms any given MSR index into a family of unbiased weighted indices, each with a different level of sensitivity to rare species. Thus rarefaction simultaneously solves the problem of bias and the problem of sensitivity to rare species. We present formulae and algorithms for conducting a functional rarefaction analysis of the two most widely cited MSR indices: functional attribute diversity (FAD) and Petchey and Gaston's functional diversity (FD). These formulae also demonstrate a relationship between three seemingly unrelated functional diversity indices: FAD, FD and Rao's quadratic entropy. Statistical theory is also provided in order to prove that all desirable statistical properties of species richness rarefaction are preserved for functional rarefaction.
  • References (35)
  • Citations (31)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
1,159 Citations
972 Citations
894 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References35
Newest
#1Owen L. Petchey (University of Sheffield)H-Index: 48
#2Kevin J. GastonH-Index: 131
Patterns and changes in functional diversity can inform about spatial and temporal variation in trait diversity, about the processes that drive assembly, and whether assemblages are likely to contain redundant species. We recently provided a new measure (termed FD) and detailed its advantages over previous ones. Since then an increasing amount of research effort has been directed towards both developing appropriate measures of functional diversity and critiquing previous ones, including FD. Poda...
82 CitationsSource
#1Jason M. Tylianakis (GAU: University of Göttingen)H-Index: 44
#2Teja Tscharntke (GAU: University of Göttingen)H-Index: 109
Last. Alexandra-Maria Klein (GAU: University of Göttingen)H-Index: 52
view all 3 authors...
Global biodiversity decline has prompted great interest in the effects of habitat modification and diversity on the functioning and stability of ecosystem processes. However, the applicability of previous modeled or mesocosm community studies to real diverse communities in different habitats remains ambiguous. We exposed standardized nesting resources for naturally occurring communities of cavity-nesting bees and wasps and their parasitoids in coastal Ecuador, to test the effects of host and par...
97 CitationsSource
#1János Podani (ELTE: Eötvös Loránd University)H-Index: 31
#2Dénes Schmera (MTA: Hungarian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 23
Euclidean distance is commonly involved in calculating functional diversity (FD), for example, in measures based on dendrogram branch lengths. We point out that this function is inappropriate in many cases and that the choice of clustering method is more crucial than earlier thought. Gower's formula and UPGMA clustering are suggested here as a standard combination of techniques for calculating FD. The advantage of Gower's measure is its suitability to a mixture of scale types and its tolerance t...
158 CitationsSource
#1Owen L. Petchey (University of Sheffield)H-Index: 48
#2Kevin J. Gaston (University of Sheffield)H-Index: 131
Functional diversity is a component of biodiversity that generally concerns the range of things that organisms do in communities and ecosystems. Here, we review how functional diversity can explain and predict the impact of organisms on ecosystems and thereby provide a mechanistic link between the two. Critical points in developing predictive measures of functional diversity are the choice of functional traits with which organisms are distinguished, how the diversity of that trait information is...
1,159 CitationsSource
#1Zoltán Botta-Dukát (MTA: Hungarian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 27
Abstract Question: Is Rao's quadratic entropy a suitable measure of functional diversity if several traits are considered? Methods: It is checked whether Rao's quadratic entropy (FDQ) satisfies a priori criteria suggested by Mason et al. A real data set is used to show that there are often zeros in abundance distributions which maximize functional diversity. Results and Conclusion: FDQ fulfils all a priori criteria and it surpasses other proposed indices, because it includes species abundances a...
471 CitationsSource
#1Norman W. H. Mason (University of Otago)H-Index: 26
#2David MouillotH-Index: 66
Last. J. Bastow WilsonH-Index: 43
view all 4 authors...
Functiona] diversity is hypothesised as being beneficial for ecosystem functions, such as productivity and resistance to invasion. However, a precise definition of functional diversity, and hence a framework for its quantification, have proved elusive. We present a definition based on the analogy of the components of species diversity - richness, evenness and divergence. These concepts are applied to functional characters to give three components of functional diversity - functional richness, fu...
707 CitationsSource
#1Chang Xuan Mao (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 12
#2Robert K. Colwell (UConn: University of Connecticut)H-Index: 60
We examine the role of rare species in the problem of estimating within- habitat species richness based on sampling data. Richness estimation can be modeled re- alistically for abundance-based and incidence-based data using Poisson or binomial mix- tures, respectively. The problem can be reduced to estimation of the odds of the probability of a species remaining undetected in the sample or sample set. Within this rigorous statistical framework, we explore existing methods of richness estimation ...
112 CitationsSource
#1David Mouillot (University of Montpellier)H-Index: 66
#2Æ W. H. Norman Mason (University of Otago)H-Index: 1
Last. J. Bastow Wilson (University of Otago)H-Index: 43
view all 4 authors...
Functional diversity has been identified as a key to understanding ecosystem and community functioning. However, due to the lack of a sound definition its nature and measurement are still poorly understood. In the same way that species diversity can be split into species richness and species evenness, so functional diversity can be split into functional richness (i.e. the amount of functional trait/character/attribute space filled) and functional evenness (i.e. the evenness of abundance distribu...
145 CitationsSource
#1Pierre Bady (University of Lyon)H-Index: 5
#2Sylvain Dolédec (University of Lyon)H-Index: 40
Last. Franz SchöllH-Index: 4
view all 6 authors...
Summary 1. Studies on biodiversity and ecosystem function require considering metrics for accurately describing the functional diversity of communities. The number of taxa (richness) is commonly used to characterise biological diversity. The disadvantage of richness as a measure of biological diversity is that all taxa are taken into account on an equal basis regardless of their abundance, their biological characteristics or their function in the ecosystem. 2. To circumvent this problem, we appl...
94 CitationsSource
#1Robert K. Colwell (UConn: University of Connecticut)H-Index: 60
#2Chang Xuan Mao (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 12
Last. Jing Chang (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
A general binomial mixture model is proposed for the species accumulation function based on presence-absence (incidence) of species in a sample of quadrats or other sampling units. The model covers interpolation between zero and the observed number of samples, as well as extrapolation beyond the observed sample set. For interpolation (sample- based rarefaction), easily calculated, closed-form expressions for both expected richness and its confidence limits are developed (using the method of mome...
1,254 CitationsSource
Cited By31
Newest
#1Carlo Ricotta (Sapienza University of Rome)H-Index: 36
Last. Sandrine Pavoine (University of Paris)H-Index: 7
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Beta diversity has long been used to summarize the amount of variation in species composition among a set of N sampling units. However, while classical beta diversity provides an estimate of multiple-site dissimilarity among all sampling units, it is not informative on the changes of multiple-site dissimilarity as a function of sampling effort. For gamma diversity, this pattern is usually represented as a species accumulation curve, which is the graph of the number of observed species w...
Source
#1Radek Michalko (Mendel University)H-Index: 4
#2Emanuel Kula (Mendel University)H-Index: 5
Last. Ondřej Košulič (Mendel University)H-Index: 6
view all 3 authors...
Key message Liming, an ameliorative method for acidified forest soils, affected the relative abundance of prey of ground-hunting spiders and consequently reduced densities of functionally similar species of these predators.
1 CitationsSource
#1Brad P. Schneid (AU: Auburn University)H-Index: 3
#2Christopher J. Anderson (AU: Auburn University)H-Index: 15
Last. Jack W. Feminella (AU: Auburn University)H-Index: 25
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Coastal areas are under increasing pressures from human population growth and expansion, resulting in widespread conversion of forested and agricultural lands to low-density residential development. We investigated stream response to urban land use in 13 small coastal watersheds with low-levels of impervious surface cover (IS, 1.5 − 10.9%). Specifically, we examined putative mechanistic relationships between pre-selected land-cover categories (riparian forest, agriculture and IS) and st...
4 CitationsSource
#1Lauren A. YeagerH-Index: 13
#2Mairin C. M. DeithH-Index: 1
Last. Julia K. Baum (UVic: University of Victoria)H-Index: 25
view all 5 authors...
Aim The functional composition of local assemblages is hypothesized to be controlled by hierarchical environmental filters, whereby the importance of different abiotic and biotic factors varies across both spatial scales and the different dimensions of functional diversity. We examine scale dependence in functional diversity–environment relationships with the ultimate aim of advancing models that predict the response of functional diversity to global change. Location Coral reefs surrounding 23 m...
10 CitationsSource
#1Marta A. Jarzyna (Yale University)H-Index: 10
#2Walter Jetz (Yale University)H-Index: 68
Interest in, and opportunities to include functional and phylogenetic attributes of species in community ecology and biogeography are rapidly growing and seen as vital for the assessment of status and trends in biodiversity. However, the fundamental underlying evidence remains the (co-)occurrence of the biological units, such as species, in time and space and our ability to appropriately detect and quantify them. Here, we examine the implications of imperfect detection of species for functional ...
57 CitationsSource
#1H. John B. Birks (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 40
#2Vivian A. Felde (Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research)H-Index: 8
Last. Thomas Giesecke (GAU: University of Göttingen)H-Index: 35
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Current interest and debate on pollen-assemblage richness as a proxy for past plant richness have prompted us to review recent developments in assessing whether modern pollen-assemblage richness reflects contemporary floristic richness. We present basic definitions and outline key terminology. We summarise four basic needs in assessing pollen–plant richness relationships — modern pollen data, modern vegetation data, pollen–plant translation tables, and quantification of the co-variation...
52 CitationsSource
#1Catherine LeighH-Index: 21
#2Núria Bonada (University of Barcelona)H-Index: 31
Last. Thibault Datry (CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)H-Index: 35
view all 7 authors...
Intermittent rivers are naturally dynamic ecosystems in which flow cessation and riverbed drying cause temporal fluctuations in aquatic biodiversity. We analysed datasets from intermittent rivers in different climate zones across the world to examine responses of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages to drying, in relation to both taxonomic composition and traits of resistance and resilience. First, we compared the differences in taxonomic richness and turnover and in trait diversity, richness a...
50 CitationsSource
The Bamboung protected area (Senegal, West Africa) has been implemented in 2003. However, little is known about its recovering effects on fish assemblage functional diversity. To address this issue, a morphology-based functional grouping was adopted, and results were compared to prior classifications. Functional richness relative to each guild and species abundance was used to define a functional redundancy index. Morphometric measurements were done in the field on freshly killed specimens and c...
Source
#1Geoff HensgenH-Index: 3
#2G. Joan HoltH-Index: 24
Last. Gregory W. StunzH-Index: 17
view all 5 authors...
We studied how spatial qualities and configuration of seagrass patches influence the diversity and abundance of resident nekton. Shallow landscapes of equal area (4225 m 2 ) in 2 bays were mapped and sampled in the summer and fall to identify different qualities of landscape structure and the abundance and diversity of nekton. Two suites of characteristics were found to describe the natural landscape structure: (1) habitat area, connectivity, patch proximity and patch density; and (2) patch shap...
7 CitationsSource
#1Pedro Cardoso (University of the Azores)H-Index: 31
#2François Rigal (University of the Azores)H-Index: 14
Last. José Carvalho (University of Minho)H-Index: 15
view all 4 authors...
Summary 1. Complete sampling of all dimensions of biodiversity is a formidable task, even for small areas. Undersampling is the norm, and the underquantification of diversity is a common outcome. Estimators of taxon diversity (TD) are widely used to correct for undersampling. Yet, no similar strategy has been developed for phylogenetic (PD) or functional (FD) diversity. 2. We propose three ways of estimating PD and FD, building on estimators originally developed for TD: (i) correcting PD and FD ...
32 CitationsSource