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Neural correlates of the rubber hand illusion in amputees: a report of two cases.

Published on Jul 4, 2014in Neurocase1.11
· DOI :10.1080/13554794.2013.791861
Laura Schmalzl15
Estimated H-index: 15
(KI: Karolinska Institutet),
Andreas Kalckert7
Estimated H-index: 7
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
+ 1 AuthorsH. Henrik Ehrsson35
Estimated H-index: 35
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
Cite
Abstract
One of the current challenges in the field of advanced prosthetics is the development of artificial limbs that provide the user with detailed sensory feedback. Sensory feedback from our limbs is not only important for proprioceptive awareness and motor control, but also essential for providing us with a feeling of ownership or simply put, the sensation that our limbs actually belong to ourselves. The strong link between sensory feedback and ownership has been repeatedly demonstrated with the so-called rubber hand illusion (RHI), during which individuals are induced with the illusory sensation that an artificial hand is their own. In healthy participants, this occurs via integration of visual and tactile signals, which is primarily supported by multisensory regions in premotor and intraparietal cortices. Here, we describe a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with two upper limb amputees, showing for the first time that the same brain regions underlie ownership sensations of an artificial hand in this population. Albeit preliminary, these findings are interesting from both a theoretical as well as a clinical point of view. From a theoretical perspective, they imply that even years after the amputation, a few seconds of synchronous visuotactile stimulation are sufficient to activate hand-centered multisensory integration mechanisms. From a clinical perspective, they show that a very basic sensation of touch from an artificial hand can be obtained by simple but precisely targeted stimulation of the stump, and suggest that a similar mechanism implemented in prosthetic hands would greatly facilitate ownership sensations and in turn, acceptance of the prosthesis.
  • References (54)
  • Citations (23)
Cite
References54
Newest
Kevin S. Weiner21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Stanford University),
Kalanit Grill-Spector38
Estimated H-index: 38
(Stanford University)
Neurophysiology and optical imaging studies in monkeys and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in both monkeys and humans have localized clustered neural responses in inferotemporal cortex selective for images of biologically relevant categories, such as faces and limbs. Using higher resolution (1.5 mm voxels) fMRI scanning methods than past studies (3–5 mm voxels), we recently reported a network of multiple face- and limb-selective regions that neighbor one another in human ven...
Published on Oct 17, 2012in The Journal of Neuroscience6.07
Claudio Brozzoli19
Estimated H-index: 19
(KI: Karolinska Institutet),
Giovanni Gentile10
Estimated H-index: 10
(KI: Karolinska Institutet),
H. Henrik Ehrsson35
Estimated H-index: 35
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
The ability to identify and localize our own limbs is crucial for survival. Indeed, the majority of our interactions with objects occur within the space surrounding the hands. In non-human primates, neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor cortices dynamically represent the space near the upper limbs in hand-centered coordinates. Neuronal populations selective for the space near the hand also exist in humans. It is unclear whether these remap the peri-hand representation as the arm is move...
Published on May 1, 2012in Brain Research2.93
Robin Bekrater-Bodmann9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Heidelberg University),
Jens Foell11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Heidelberg University)
+ 1 AuthorsHerta Flor84
Estimated H-index: 84
(Heidelberg University)
Abstract The rubber hand illusion (RHI) offers the opportunity to systematically manipulate the experience of embodiment, which is here used to describe the subjective integration of an external object into one's body representation. Among the cortical regions involved in the processing of body perception, the ventral premotor cortex seems to be crucial in the integration of visuotactile stimuli. However, it is not known if the perceived vividness of the RHI is a trait or a state variable. In th...
Published on Jan 1, 2012
Barry E. Stein1
Estimated H-index: 1
Scientists' attempts to understand the physiology underlying our apprehension of the physical world was long dominated by a focus on the individual senses. The 1980s saw the beginning of systematic efforts to examine interactions among different sensory modalities at the level of the single neuron. And by the end of the 1990s, a recognizable and multidisciplinary field of "multisensory processes" had emerged. More recently, studies involving both human and nonhuman subjects have focused on relat...
Published on Dec 1, 2011in Nature Reviews Neuroscience33.16
Daniel M. Wolpert75
Estimated H-index: 75
(University of Cambridge),
Jörn Diedrichsen43
Estimated H-index: 43
(UCL: University College London),
J. Randall Flanagan42
Estimated H-index: 42
(University of Cambridge)
The exploits of Martina Navratilova and Roger Federer represent the pinnacle of motor learning. However, when considering the range and complexity of the processes that are involved in motor learning, even the mere mortals among us exhibit abilities that are impressive. We exercise these abilities when taking up new activities — whether it is snowboarding or ballroom dancing — but also engage in substantial motor learning on a daily basis as we adapt to changes in our environment, manipulate new...
Andrew Jackson49
Estimated H-index: 49
(Newcastle University),
Eberhard E. Fetz57
Estimated H-index: 57
(UW: University of Washington)
Neuroscience is just beginning to understand the neural computations that underlie our remarkable capacity to learn new motor tasks. Studies of natural movements have emphasized the importance of concepts such as dimensionality reduction within hierarchical levels of redundancy, optimization of behavior in the presence of sensorimotor noise and internal models for predictive control. These concepts also provide a framework for understanding the improvements in performance seen in myoelectric-con...
Published on Jul 1, 2011in Current Biology9.19
Valeria I. Petkova10
Estimated H-index: 10
(KI: Karolinska Institutet),
Malin Björnsdotter10
Estimated H-index: 10
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
+ 3 AuthorsH. Henrik Ehrsson35
Estimated H-index: 35
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
Summary The question of how we experience ownership of an entire body distinct from the external world is a fundamental problem in psychology and neuroscience [1–6]. Earlier studies suggest that integration of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information in multisensory areas [7–11] mediates self-attribution of single limbs. However, it is still unknown how ownership of individual body parts translates into the unitary experience of owning a whole body. Here, we used a "body-swap" illusion [1...
Published on Jun 15, 2011in The Journal of Neuroscience6.07
Claudio Brozzoli19
Estimated H-index: 19
,
Giovanni Gentile10
Estimated H-index: 10
+ 1 AuthorsH. Henrik Ehrsson35
Estimated H-index: 35
Behavioral studies in humans and electrophysiological recordings in nonhuman primates have suggested the existence of a specific representation of the space immediately surrounding the body. In macaques, neurons that have visual receptive fields limited to a region of space close around a body part have been found in premotor and parietal areas. These cells are hypothesized to encode the location of external objects in coordinate systems that are centered on individual body parts. In the present...
Published on Apr 1, 2011in Neuropsychologia2.87
Regine Zopf10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Macquarie University),
Sandra Truong1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Macquarie University)
+ 2 AuthorsMark A. Williams69
Estimated H-index: 69
(Macquarie University)
Action requires knowledge of our body location in space. Here we asked if interactions with the external world prior to a reaching action influence how visual location information is used. We investigated if the temporal synchrony between viewing and feeling touch modulates the integration of visual and proprioceptive body location information for action. We manipulated the synchrony between viewing and feeling touch in the Rubber Hand Illusion paradigm prior to participants performing a ballist...
Published on Mar 1, 2011in Brain11.81
Paul D. Marasco5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago),
Keehoon Kim10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago)
+ 2 AuthorsTodd A. Kuiken40
Estimated H-index: 40
(Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago)
Existing prosthetic limbs do not provide amputees with cutaneous feedback. Tactile feedback is essential to intuitive control of a prosthetic limb and it is now clear that the sense of body self-identification is also linked to cutaneous touch. Here we have created an artificial sense of touch for a prosthetic limb by coupling a pressure sensor on the hand through a robotic stimulator to surgically redirected cutaneous sensory nerves (targeted reinnervation) that once served the lost limb. We hy...
Cited By23
Newest
Mariella Pazzaglia15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Sapienza University of Rome),
Giorgio Scivoletto26
Estimated H-index: 26
+ 1 AuthorsErik Leemhuis2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Sapienza University of Rome)
Corporeal awareness of body unity, continuity, and integrity is hardwired in the brain, even following massive deafferentation. Following peripheral limb injury, referred phantom sensations are reported frequently on the cheek and, rarely, on the ear. Here, we explore how brain plasticity mechanisms induced by multisensory stimulation of different facial regions (cheek and ear) modulate the feeling that a complete missing limb is still attached to the body. We applied the modified rubber hand il...
Published on Sep 1, 2018in Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews8.00
Maria Niedernhuber1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Cambridge),
Damiano G. Barone3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Cambridge),
Bigna Lenggenhager18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UZH: University of Zurich)
Abstract Recent years have seen a surge of interest in the incorporation of artificial limbs. This research promises to provide individuals with sensorimotor disorders such as amputations with prostheses which feel like their own body part. While neuroscience made a leap towards uncovering the basic neurocognitive mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness, the development of incorporated prosthetic limbs still faces substantial challenges in basic neuroscience and in clinical reality. Here we crit...
Published on Aug 1, 2018
Benjamin Stephens-Fripp2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UOW: University of Wollongong),
Rahim Mutlu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UOW: University of Wollongong),
Gursel Alici40
Estimated H-index: 40
(UOW: University of Wollongong)
An effective method of communicating sensory feedback for prosthetics is presented using a combination of mechanical pressure and skin stretch, resulting in a mixture of normal and shear force being applied to the human arm. Stimulations were induced on the subject's forearm by three mechanical cranks, each attached to their own servo motor. Three different crank orientations were tested, each producing a different skin stretch direction, with the results showing that shear force/tangential skin...
Published on Aug 1, 2018
Benjamin Stephens-Fripp2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UOW: University of Wollongong),
Rahim Mutlu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UOW: University of Wollongong),
Gursel Alici40
Estimated H-index: 40
(UOW: University of Wollongong)
It has been reported in the literature that sensory information is a valuable and desired form of feedback for prosthetic users. Communication of how the arm moves can reduce cognitive load, reduce the need for visual attention and help the user predict the initial grasping force. In this paper, a new method of communicating movement sensations is presented through the application of tactile apparent movement. By overlapping vibration created by arrays of linear resonant actuators, a stroking mo...
Published on May 1, 2018in Royal Society Open Science2.52
Yuki Sato1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Rits: Ritsumeikan University),
Toshihiro Kawase6
Estimated H-index: 6
(TITech: Tokyo Institute of Technology)
+ 2 AuthorsKenji Kansaku20
Estimated H-index: 20
(University of Electro-Communications)
Understanding how we consciously experience our bodies is a fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience. Two fundamental components of this are the sense of body ownership (the experience of the body as one9s own) and the sense of agency (the feeling of control over one9s bodily actions). These constructs have been used to investigate the incorporation of prostheses. To date, however, no evidence has been provided showing whether representations of ownership and agency in amputees are altered wh...
Published on Jan 1, 2018in IEEE Access4.10
Benjamin Stephens-Fripp2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UOW: University of Wollongong),
Gursel Alici40
Estimated H-index: 40
(UOW: University of Wollongong),
Rahim Mutlu10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UOW: University of Wollongong)
Any implant or prosthesis replacing a function or functions of an organ or group of organs should be biologically and sensorily integrated with the human body in order to increase their acceptance with their user. If this replacement is for a human hand, which is an important interface between humans and their environment, the acceptance issue and developing sensory-motor embodiment will be more challenging. Despite progress in prosthesis technologies, 50–60% of hand amputees wear a prosthetic d...
Published on Nov 1, 2017in Consciousness and Cognition1.85
Priscila Palomo3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Valencia),
Adrián Borrego4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Polytechnic University of Valencia)
+ 3 AuthorsRosa M. Baños36
Estimated H-index: 36
(University of Valencia)
Abstract The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20–30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20–35 years old, N = 41...
Published on Jul 25, 2017in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience2.87
Isa S. Rao1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Glas.: University of Glasgow),
Christoph Kayser42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Glas.: University of Glasgow)
The rubber hand illusion (RHI) allows insights into how the brain resolves conflicting multisensory information regarding body position and ownership. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of neurophysiological correlates of illusory hand ownership, with conflicting results likely originating from differences in experimental parameters and control conditions. Here, we overcome these limitations by using a fully automated and precisely-timed visuo-tactile stimulation setup to reco...
Published on Jul 1, 2017
Peter W Snow (RNOH: Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital), Imad Sedki2
Estimated H-index: 2
(RNOH: Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital)
+ 2 AuthorsRui C. V. Loureiro16
Estimated H-index: 16
(RNOH: Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital)
The system described in this paper combines virtual reality with haptic feedback to increase the level of immersion and invoke the sense of agency in patients with phantom limb pain with the aim of reducing perceived pain. This paper presents three case studies of an on-going clinical study. The initial results suggest an increased sense of embodiment of the virtual limb promotes a decrease in perceived levels of pain. The results strengthen the view that the cortical map does not fully “disappe...