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Intra-abdominal adiposity and individual components of the metabolic syndrome in adolescence: sex differences and underlying mechanisms.

Published on May 1, 2008in JAMA Pediatrics 10.77
· DOI :10.1001/archpedi.162.5.453
Catriona Syme13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
Michal Abrahamowicz68
Estimated H-index: 68
+ 10 AuthorsZdenka Pausova41
Estimated H-index: 41
Abstract
Objective To investigate the association between intra-abdominal adiposity and individual components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescent males and females. Design Cross-sectional study of a population-based cohort. Setting Saguenay Youth Study, Quebec, Canada. Participants A total of 324 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years. Intervention Measures were compared between males and females with “high” or “low” intra-abdominal fat (IAF). Main Outcome Measures Intra-abdominal fat was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging. Primary outcome measures were blood pressure (BP) and fasting serum glucose, insulin, lipids, and C-reactive protein levels. Secondary mechanistic measures were cardiovascular variability indexes of autonomic nervous system function, pubertal development, and serum levels of cortisol, leptin, and sex hormones. Results The MS was completely absent in adolescents with low IAF and was present in 13.8% of males and 8.3% of females with high IAF. Excess IAF was associated with a higher homeostasis model assessment index (0.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.3 to 0.8]; P P P  = .003), and higher C-reactive protein level (0.03 mg/L [to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 9.524] [95% CI, 0.01 to 0.05 mg/L]; P  = .003). High IAF was associated with elevations of BP and sympathetic activity in males only (higher systolic BP, 6 mm Hg [95% CI, 1 to 11 mm Hg]; P  = .02 and low-frequency power of diastolic BP, 629 mm Hg 2 [95% CI, 37 to 1222 mm Hg 2 ]; P  = .04). Conclusions Our results suggest that, already in adolescence, accumulation of IAF may promote development of the MS, affecting the metabolic and inflammatory components similarly in both sexes but influencing BP adversely only in males. The latter may be attributed, in part, to the augmentation of sympathetic activity also seen only in males.
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  • Citations (91)
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References53
Newest
Published on Jun 1, 2007in Human Brain Mapping 4.93
Zdenka Pausova41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UdeM: Université de Montréal),
Tomáš Paus82
Estimated H-index: 82
(University of Nottingham)
+ 24 AuthorsAlan Evans154
Estimated H-index: 154
(Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital)
The search for genes of complex traits is aided by the availability of multiple quantitative phenotypes collected in geographically isolated populations. Here we provide rationale for a large-scale study of gene-environment interactions influencing brain and behavior and cardiovascular and metabolic health in adolescence, namely the Saguenay Youth Study (SYS). The SYS is a retrospective study of long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) in which multiple q...
103 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2007in Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 3.32
Sa Ritchie1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Glas.: University of Glasgow),
J.M.C. Connell1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Glas.: University of Glasgow)
Abstract Aim The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased dramatically in recent years, and the cluster of metabolic abnormalities it encompasses results in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The role of abdominal (visceral) obesity and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms central to this association have been the subject of intensive research in recent times. The aim of this review is to correlate data in this area, highlighting the central role of excess viscer...
363 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 12, 2006in Circulation 18.88
Kaberi Dasgupta26
Estimated H-index: 26
(UdeM: Université de Montréal),
Jennifer O’Loughlin18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UdeM: Université de Montréal)
+ 5 AuthorsLouise Pilote61
Estimated H-index: 61
(UdeM: Université de Montréal)
Background— High systolic blood pressure (SBP) occurs more frequently both among men and boys than among women and girls. No longitudinal study has investigated whether the impact of SBP determinants differ according to sex in youth. Methods and Results— Between 1999 and 2005, an adolescent cohort (n=1267) completed a questionnaire survey and underwent biannual blood pressure and anthropometric assessment (grades 7, 9, and 11). Boys accounted for ≈50% of those with high SBP at grade 7 and 9 asse...
110 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2006in Hypertension 6.82
Murray Esler85
Estimated H-index: 85
,
Nora E. Straznicky33
Estimated H-index: 33
+ 3 AuthorsElisabeth Lambert42
Estimated H-index: 42
Obesity prevalence is soaring in industrialized countries and progressively increasing in the developing world. Altered patterns of nutrition and reduction in work-related energy expenditure have led to obesity becoming a truly global health issue. The central thermodynamic formulation for the origins of obesity, a mismatched energy balance equation, with an excess of dietary calorie intake over body energy expenditure, is a first step in the understanding of this phenomenon but leaves the diver...
287 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2006in Diabetes Care 13.40
Joyce M. Lee34
Estimated H-index: 34
,
Megumi J. Okumura14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)
+ 2 AuthorsJames G. Gurney54
Estimated H-index: 54
(UM: University of Michigan)
OBJECTIVE —We sought to examine the distribution of insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and associations of HOMA-IR with sex, race/ethnicity, age, and weight status, as measured by BMI, among U.S. adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS —Of 4,902 adolescents aged 12–19 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002, analysis was performed for a nationally representative subsample of 1,802 adolescents without diabetes...
331 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2006in Clinical Science 5.22
C J Malkin6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Royal Hallamshire Hospital),
R Jones22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Sheffield)
+ 1 AuthorsKevin S. Channer47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Royal Hallamshire Hospital)
Testosterone is reported to have an acute vasodilating action in vitro , an effect that may impart a favourable haemodynamic response in patients with chronic heart failure. However, the effect of chronic testosterone exposure on general vascular reactivity is poorly described. In the present study, fresh subcutaneous resistance arteries were obtained from patients with heart failure ( n =10), healthy controls ( n =9) and men with androgen-deficiency ( n =17). All arteries were studied using a w...
63 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2006in Clinical Science 5.22
Radu Iliescu27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UMMC: University of Mississippi Medical Center),
Jane F. Reckelhoff45
Estimated H-index: 45
(UMMC: University of Mississippi Medical Center)
The mechanisms by which male sex hormones modulate cardiovascular function are a subject of contemporary interest. Several lines of evidence indicate that androgens can exert acute vasorelaxing effects. On the other hand, chronic exposure to androgens has been shown to promote increases in blood pressure and compromise renal function. In the present issue of Clinical Science , Malkin and co-workers show that testosterone replacement impairs vascular reactivity in men with androgen deficiency. Th...
14 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 15, 2006in American Journal of Epidemiology 4.32
Rashid M. Ansari1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Saudi Aramco)
The authors used a population-based birth cohort of 3,253 children (52% males) born in Brisbane, Australia, between 1981 and 1984 to prospectively examine whether maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with offspring overweight and obesity. The authors compared mean body mass indexes (weight (kg)/height (m)2) and levels of overweight and obesity at age 14 years among offspring by patterns of maternal smoking (never smoked, smoked before and/or after pregnancy but not during pregnancy, ...
135 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2006in Journal of Applied Physiology 3.26
Gianfranco Parati84
Estimated H-index: 84
,
Giuseppe Mancia127
Estimated H-index: 127
+ 3 AuthorsPéter Studinger15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital)
PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE POINT:COUNTERPOINT DEBATES This series of debates was initiated for the Journal of Applied Physiology because we believe an important means of searching for truth is through debate where contradictory viewpoints are put forward. This dialectic process whereby a thesis is advanced, then opposed by an antithesis, with a synthesis subsequently arrived at, is a powerful and often entertaining method for gaining knowledge and for understanding the source of a controversy. Bef...
249 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2006in Journal of Applied Physiology 3.26
J. Andrew Taylor36
Estimated H-index: 36
(Harvard University),
Péter Studinger15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Semmelweis University)
51 Citations
Cited By91
Newest
Published on Jan 25, 2019in Pediatric Obesity 3.98
Catherine E. Cioffi1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Emory University),
Jessica A. Alvarez14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Emory University)
+ 1 AuthorsMiriam B. Vos26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Emory University)
Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Obesity 4.04
Emma Kjellberg1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Gothenburg),
Josefine Roswall6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ 5 AuthorsJovanna Dahlgren28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Gothenburg)
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Published on Jan 1, 2018
Tracy E. Hunley21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt),
Vance L. Albaugh9
Estimated H-index: 9
(VUMC: Vanderbilt University Medical Center),
Valentina Kon3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt)
Obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities promote both systemic hypertension and renal injury; hypertension in turn results from, and contributes to, progressive renal damage. It is now well established that obesity dramatically increases the risks of type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy; yet even in the absence of diabetes, obesity predisposes to chronic kidney disease and accelerates its progression. In this chapter we discuss the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal disease in obese ch...
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Published on Nov 1, 2017in Journal of the American Heart Association 4.45
Alejandro Marinos1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UC: University of Cincinnati),
Alfredo Gamboa25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
+ 7 AuthorsCyndya Shibao22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Vandy: Vanderbilt University)
BackgroundBlack women have one of the highest prevalence rates of hypertension and obesity in the United States. We previously reported that sympathetic activation induced by obesity is a significant contributor to hypertension in white patients. It is unknown whether sympathetic activity similarly contributes to hypertension in obese black women. Methods and ResultsWe studied 42 obese women (16 white, body mass index 36±4 kg/m2, 44% with hypertension; 26 black, body mass index 35±4 kg/m2, 46% w...
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 1, 2017in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4.29
Kathleen F. Janz7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UI: University of Iowa),
Piroska Boros1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UI: University of Iowa)
+ 3 AuthorsSteven M. Levy50
Estimated H-index: 50
(UI: University of Iowa)
7 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2017in Nutrition & Diabetes 2.74
Mark Hübers3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Corinna Geisler9
Estimated H-index: 9
+ 1 AuthorsM J Müller1
Estimated H-index: 1
Association between individual fat depots and cardio-metabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults
8 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 10, 2017in Nutrients 4.20
Dong-Hyun Choi1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Yang-Im Hur5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 4 AuthorsEun Byul Cho1
Estimated H-index: 1
The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10–19 years who w...
11 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 2, 2017in Journal of Neuroscience Research 2.66
Tomáš Paus82
Estimated H-index: 82
(MIND Institute),
Angelita Pui-Yee Wong3
Estimated H-index: 3
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 1 AuthorsZdenka Pausova41
Estimated H-index: 41
(U of T: University of Toronto)
This Mini-Review describes sex differences in 66 quantitative characteristics of the brain and body measured in a community-based sample of 1,024 adolescents 12–18 years of age, members of the Saguenay Youth Study. Using an extensive phenotyping protocol, we have obtained measures in a number of domains, including brain structure, cognition, mental health, substance use, body composition, metabolism, cardiovascular reactivity, and life style. For each measure, we provide estimates of effect size...
13 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 22, 2016in Circulation 18.88
Catriona Syme13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
Simon Czajkowski1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 13 AuthorsLisa J. Strug25
Estimated H-index: 25
Background: Glycerophosphocholine (GPC) metabolites modulate atherosclerosis and thus risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical CVD may start during adolescence. Here, we used targeted serum lipidomics to identify a new panel of GPCs, and tested whether any of these GPCs are associated, in adolescence, with classical risk factors of CVD, namely excess visceral fat (VF), elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Methods: We studied a population-based samp...
Source Cite
Published on Nov 22, 2016in Circulation 18.88
Catriona Syme13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
Simon Czajkowski1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 13 AuthorsLisa J. Strug25
Estimated H-index: 25
Background: Glycerophosphocholine (GPC) metabolites modulate atherosclerosis and thus risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical CVD may start during adolescence. Here, we used targeted serum lipidomics to identify a new panel of GPCs, and tested whether any of these GPCs are associated, in adolescence, with classical risk factors of CVD, namely excess visceral fat (VF), elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Methods: We studied a population-based samp...
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