Self-Concept Development in the Toddler Years.

Published on Jan 1, 1990in Developmental Psychology3.34
· DOI :10.1037//0012-1649.26.6.972
Deborah Stipek49
Estimated H-index: 49
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles),
J. Heidi Gralinski5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles),
Claire B. Kopp19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)
This study was designed to determine groupings of behaviors asociated with self-concept development in toddlers and the sequence in which groups of behaviors appear. Mothers of 123 toddlers of ages 14 to 40 months reported on the presence of 25 behaviors associated with the self.
  • References (12)
  • Citations (115)
Published on Feb 1, 1989in Child Development5.02
Michael Lewis77
Estimated H-index: 77
(RU: Rutgers University),
Margaret Wolan Sullivan29
Estimated H-index: 29
+ 1 AuthorsM. Weiss1
Estimated H-index: 1
In each of 2 studies, the mirror-rouge technique was used to differentiate children into those who showed self-recognition and those who did not. In Study 1, 27 children (aged 9-24 months) were observed in 2 experimental situations thought to differentially elicit fear and embarrassment behaviors. In Study 2, 44 children (aged 22 months) were seen in the situations of Study 1 and 3 additional contexts thought to elicit embarrassment behavior. The results of both studies indicate that embarrassme...
Published on Jan 1, 1988
Elizabeth Bates75
Estimated H-index: 75
Inge Bretherton41
Estimated H-index: 41
+ 1 AuthorsMarjorie Beeghly27
Estimated H-index: 27
Preface Acknowledgements Part I. Background: 1. Introduction 2. Modules and mechanisms 3. Individual differences and the correlational method 4. Review of the individual differences literature Part II. Individual Studies Section 1. Overall Design of Longitudinal Study: 5. Study 1: comprehension and production at 10 and 13 months 6. Study 2: the meaning of mean length of utterance at 20 months 7. Study 3: lexical development and lexical style at 20 months 8. Study 4. single- and multiword compreh...
Published on Jan 1, 1988in Philosophical Psychology1.15
Ulric Neisser3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Emory University)
Abstract Self‐knowledge is based on several different forms of information, so distinct that each one essentially establishes a different ‘self. The ecological self is the self as directly perceived with respect to the immediate physical environment; the interpersonal self, also directly perceived, is established by species‐specific signals of emotional rapport and communication; the extended self is based on memory and anticipation; the private self appears when we discover that our conscious e...
Published on Jan 1, 1987
Jerome Kagan1
Estimated H-index: 1
Sharon Lamb21
Estimated H-index: 21
D P John2
Estimated H-index: 2
""The Emergence of Morality in Young Children" is one of very few scholarly books concerning the development of moral tendencies in the early years. In its pages, a diverse group of eminent social and behavioral scientists address this fascinating topic and struggle with issues of inquiry that have persistently plagued this field." Nancy Eisenberg, "Harvard Educational Review" "This is a welcome and immensely provocative book. For those of us who favor ethical theorizing done in close proximity ...
Published on Jan 1, 1986in Developmental Psychology3.34
Penelope K. Trickett43
Estimated H-index: 43
Leon Kuczynski26
Estimated H-index: 26
(U of G: University of Guelph)
Published on Jan 1, 1985
Daniel N. Stern22
Estimated H-index: 22
Paul Lütkenhaus5
Estimated H-index: 5
The study, conducted in two independent replications, run approximately one year apart, explored the possibility that (a) the actions of three year old children are guided and accompanied by self-evaluations and withdrawal, (b) that self-evaluations and withdrawal have a motivational function for persistence, indicating the beginnings of a self-reward system, and (c) are influenced by the mother's behavior when interacting with her child. Natural observations of mother and child, playing a match...
Published on Jan 1, 1984in Contemporary Sociology0.46
Nancy Eisenberg95
Estimated H-index: 95
(ASU: Arizona State University),
Natalie D. Eggum22
Estimated H-index: 22
(ASU: Arizona State University),
Tracy L. Spinrad43
Estimated H-index: 43
(ASU: Arizona State University)
Conceptual Issues. Early Development of Prosocial Behavior and Socialization Mechanisms. The Role of Cognition. The Role of Affect. Personality and Prosocial Behavior. Index.
Published on Jan 1, 1984
Jerome Kagan75
Estimated H-index: 75
(Harvard University)
The world-famous Harvard psychologist challenges many of psychologys most deeply held assumptions about human developmentarguing, for example, that early experience does not inexorably shape our lives and that the influence of the family is more subtle than has been supposed..
Published on Jan 1, 1984in Merrill-palmer Quarterly
John E. Bates74
Estimated H-index: 74
Kathryn Bayles4
Estimated H-index: 4
There has been considerable discussion in the literature about the meaning of parent reports of child characteristics, particularly in the area of temperament. Some have suggested that the reports are essentially reflections of the child's ac tual, objectifiable behavior; others, that they are essentially reflections of the parents' cognitive characteristics. In the most comprehensive way to date, the current study evaluated the model that parent reports consist of both objective and subjective ...
Cited By115
Published on Jul 7, 2019in Child Development Perspectives4.43
Sara Valencia Botto1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Emory University),
Philippe Rochat42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Emory University)
Published on Aug 19, 2019in Child Development5.02
Jess Aitken (University of Otago), Ted Ruffman34
Estimated H-index: 34
(University of Otago),
Mele Taumoepeau9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Otago)
Published on Jan 1, 2019
Kristin A. Buss14
Estimated H-index: 14
(PSU: Pennsylvania State University),
Pamela M. Cole28
Estimated H-index: 28
(PSU: Pennsylvania State University),
Anna M. Zhou (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)
In this chapter, we review several theories of emotional development. For each, we address definitions and basic tenets, we ask what “develops” and how emotions change with age. What is particularly noteworthy is that although there are several emotional development theories, none ascribes to a single emotion theory. Moreover, no single emotional development theory guides contemporary research. In the second half of the chapter, we review other conceptual frameworks and theories that are not emo...
Published on Mar 23, 2018
Audun Dahl12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UCSC: University of California, Santa Cruz),
Melanie Killen42
Estimated H-index: 42
(UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)
Published on Nov 1, 2017in Autism Research3.70
Heather J. Nuske8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UPenn: University of Pennsylvania),
Darren Hedley10
Estimated H-index: 10
(La Trobe University)
+ 3 AuthorsCheryl Dissanayake31
Estimated H-index: 31
(La Trobe University)
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly present with difficulty regulating negative emotions, which has been found to impact their behavioral and mental health. Little research has documented the strategies that children with ASD use to regulate their emotion to understand whether they use qualitatively different strategies to children without ASD, whether these are developmentally delayed, or both. Forty-four children with ASD and 29 typically-developing children (2–4 years) were ...
Published on Nov 1, 2017in Child Development5.02
Andrei Cimpian20
Estimated H-index: 20
(NYU: New York University),
Matthew D. Hammond11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Victoria University of Wellington)
+ 1 AuthorsGrace Corry1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)
There is debate about the abstractness of young children's self-concepts—specifically, whether they include representations of (a) general traits and abilities and (b) the global self. Four studies (N = 176 children aged 4–7) suggested these representations are indeed part of early self-concepts. Studies 1 and 2 reexamined prior evidence that young children cannot represent traits and abilities. The results suggested that children's seemingly immature judgments in previous studies were due to pe...
Published on Sep 1, 2017in Infancy2.55
Whitney E. Waugh7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Pittsburgh),
Celia A. Brownell30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Pittsburgh)
Prosocial behavior emerges in the second year of life, yet it is typical for children in this period not to share, comfort, or help. We compared toddlers (18, 30 months) who helped with those who did not help on two tasks (instrumental helping; empathic helping). More than half of children failed to help on one or both tasks. Nonhelpers engaged in more hypothesis testing on the instrumental helping task, but more security-seeking, wariness, and playing on the empathic helping task. Across tasks,...
Published on Sep 1, 2017in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders2.79
Susan B. Campbell56
Estimated H-index: 56
(University of Pittsburgh),
Elizabeth L. Moore2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Pittsburgh)
+ 1 AuthorsCelia A. Brownell30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Pittsburgh)
Toddlers with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low risk (LR) toddlers were observed at 22, 28, and 34 months during two empathy probes: a crying baby and an adult who pretended to hurt her finger. Toddlers with a later ASD diagnosis showed less empathic concern and self-distress at each age on both empathy probes than LR toddlers. HR toddlers with no diagnosis showed growth in empathic concern between 22 and 34 months in response to the adult’s pain, differing from the ch...
Published on Jul 1, 2017in Child Development5.02
Jesse Drummond5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Pittsburgh),
Stuart I. Hammond11
Estimated H-index: 11
(U of O: University of Ottawa)
+ 2 AuthorsCelia A. Brownell30
Estimated H-index: 30
(University of Pittsburgh)
This study explored the role of guilt and shame in early prosocial behavior by extending previous findings that guilt- and shame-like responses can be distinguished in toddlers and, for the first time, examining their associations with helping. Toddlers (n = 32; Mage = 28.9 months) were led to believe they broke an adult's toy, after which they exhibited either a guilt-like response that included frequently confessing their behavior and trying to repair the toy; or a shame-like response that inc...
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology2.98
Josephine Ross4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Dund.: University of Dundee)
Abstract Self-evaluative emotions depend on internalized social standards and motivate social action. However, there is a lack of empirical research documenting the impact of self-evaluative emotion on 3- and 4-year-olds’ prosociality. Extant research relates children’s experiences of guilt to empathetic concern and making amends. However, the relationship between guilt and both concern and making amends is potentially reductive. Empathetic concern involves similar bodily expressions to guilt, a...