A hierarchical model of plumage: Morphology, development, and evolution

Published on Aug 15, 2003in Journal of Experimental Zoology 2.43
· DOI :10.1002/jez.b.27
Richard O. Prum44
Estimated H-index: 44
(University of Kansas),
Jan Dyck6
Estimated H-index: 6
Abstract
Plumage is a complex component of the avian phenotype. The plumage of an individual is composed of numerous hierarchically arranged developmental and morphological modules. We present a hierarchical model of plumage that provides an intellectual framework for understanding the development and evolution of feathers. Independence, covariation, and interaction among plumage modules create numerous opportunities for developmental and evolutionary diversification of feather complexity and function. The hierarchical relationships among plumage modules are characterized by both top-down and bottom-up effects in which properties of modules at one level of the hierarchy determine or influence the properties of modules at lower or higher levels of the hierarchy. Plumage metamodules are created by covariation or interaction among modules at different levels of the hierarchy. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 298B: 73–90, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • References (49)
  • Citations (43)
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References49
Published on Jun 15, 1996
Rudolf A. Raff51
Estimated H-index: 51
In the book, "Embryos, Genes, and Evolution", Raff and co-author Thomas Kaufman proposed a synthesis of developmental and evolutionary biology. In "The Shape of Life", Raff analyzes the rise of this experimental discipline and lays out research questions, hypotheses and approaches to guide its development. Raff uses the evolution of animal body plans to exemplify the interplay between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary patterns. Animal body plans emerged half a billion years ago. Evolutio...
871 Citations
Published on Apr 1, 2001in Nature 41.58
Hans-Dieter Sues30
Estimated H-index: 30
The evolution of feathers and flight were generally thought to be inextricably linked. But new fossils from China show that feathers pre-dated the origin of flight and of birds.
19 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 1998in Nature 41.58
Richard O. Prum44
Estimated H-index: 44
(American Museum of Natural History),
Rodolfo H. Torres23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Kansas)
+ 1 AuthorsJan Dyck6
Estimated H-index: 6
204 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1998in Nature 41.58
Ji Qiang10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Geological Museum of China),
Philip J. Currie45
Estimated H-index: 45
(Royal Tyrrell Museum)
+ 1 AuthorsJi Shu-an2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Royal Tyrrell Museum)
Current controversy over the origin and early evolution of birds centres on whether or not they are derived from coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs. Here we describe two theropods from the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous Chaomidianzi Formation of Liaoning province, China. Although both theropods have feathers, It Is likely that neither was able to fly. Phylogenetic analysis Indicates that they are both more primitive than the earliest known avlalan (bird), Archaeopteryx. These new fossils represe...
402 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 1999in Nature 41.58
Xing Xu39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Academia Sinica),
Zhi-lu Tang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Academia Sinica),
Xiaolin Wang30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Academia Sinica)
Therizinosauroidea ('segnosaurs') are little-known group of Asian dinosaurs with an unusual combination of features that, until recently, obscured their evolutionary relationships. Suggested affinities include Ornithischia(1), Sauroyodomorpha(2,3), Theropoda(4-11) and Saurischia sedis mutabilis(12). Here,ve describe a new therizinosauroid from the Yixian Formation (Early Cretaceous, Liaoning, China)(13). This new taxon provides fresh evidence that therizinosauroids are nested within the coeluros...
186 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1998in Nature 41.58
Pei-ji Chen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Academia Sinica),
Zhiming Dong12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Academia Sinica),
Shuo-nan Zhen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(American Museum of Natural History)
Two spectacular fossilized dinosaur skeletons were recently discovered in Liaoning in northeastern China. Here we describe the two nearly complete skeletons of a small theropod that represent a species closely related to Compsognathus. Sinosauropteryx has the longest tail of any known theropod, and a three-fingered hand dominated by the first finger, which is longer and thicker than either of the bones of the forearm. Both specimens have interesting integumentary structures that could provide in...
468 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2000in Nature 41.58
Xing Xu39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Xiaolin Wang30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Non-avian dinosaurs are mostly medium to large-sized animals, and to date all known mature specimens are larger than the most primitive bird, Archaeopteryx(1). Here we report on a new dromaeosaurid dinosaur, Microraptor zhaoianus gen. et sp. nov., from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning, China(2). This is the first mature non-avian dinosaur to be found that is smaller than Archaeopteryx(1), and it eliminates the size disparity between the earliest birds and their closest non-av...
445 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 2001in Nature 41.58
Qiang Ji12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Mark A. Norell53
Estimated H-index: 53
(American Museum of Natural History)
+ 2 AuthorsDong Ren25
Estimated H-index: 25
Non-avian theropod dinosaurs with preserved integumentary coverings are becoming more common 1-6 ; but apart from the multiple specimens of Caudipteryx, which have true feathers 2,7 , animals that are reasonably complete and entirely articulated that show these structures in relation to the body have not been reported. Here we report on an enigmatic small theropod dinosaur that is covered with filamentous feather-like structures over its entire body.
112 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 1999in Nature 41.58
Xing Xu39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Academia Sinica),
Xiaolin Wang30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Academia Sinica),
Xiao-Chun Wu14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Academia Sinica)
Dromaeosaurids, despite their notoriety, are poorly characterized meat-eating dinosaurs, and were previously known only from disarticulated or fragmentary specimens(1). Many studies have denied their close relationship to birds(2,3). Here we report the best represented and probably the earliest dromaeosaurid yet discovered, Sinornithosaurus millenii gen. et sp. nov., from Sihetun, the famous Mesozoic fish-dinosaur-bird locality in China(4,5). Sinornithosaurus not only greatly increases our knowl...
215 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1961in Development 5.41
John Cohen21
Estimated H-index: 21
,
Paul G. 'Espinasse2
Estimated H-index: 2
The feather is the most elaborate of all the derivatives of the Malpighian layer. The production of so complex a structure from so simple a layer of cells is a challenge to the developmental anatomist and has been studied for many years. Historically two main views of the fundamentals of feather development may be distinguished. In 1889 Davies published a very full account in which he described the growth as being essentially a simple lengthening, by increment at its base, of an ectodermal cylin...
19 Citations
  • References (49)
  • Citations (43)
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Cited By43
Published on Nov 16, 2014in Cellular and Molecular Biology 1.37
An Jf1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Sun Y1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 2 AuthorsJie Zhang37
Estimated H-index: 37
The aim of this study was to isolate Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) from native chicken and to characterize their pluripotency properties through the cellular and molecular markers. Samples obtained from fertilized eggs from Mazandaran native hens. Cells were isolated from area of pellucida from stage X native hens’ blastoderm. Then the cells were cultured on inactivated mouse SNL feeder cells in the presence of LIF, IGF-1, bFGF, CNTF, OSM, SCF, Il-6, and Il-11 growth factors. The native chickens’ ...
3 Citations
Published on Nov 2, 2005in Journal of Anatomy 2.48
Richard A. Schneider26
Estimated H-index: 26
(University of California, San Francisco)
Beaks and feathers epitomize inimitable avian traits. Within individuals and across species there exists astounding diversity in the size, shape, arrangement, and colour of beaks and feathers in association with various functional adaptations. What has enabled the concomitantly divergent evolution of beaks and feathers? The common denominator may lie in their developmental programmes. As revealed through recent transplant experiments using quail and duck embryos, the developmental programme for ...
29 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2015in Evolution 3.82
Chad M. Eliason9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Texas at Austin),
Rafael Maia14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Akron),
Matthew D. Shawkey28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Akron)
The way in which a complex trait varies, and thus evolves, is critically affected by the independence, or modularity, of its subunits. How modular designs facilitate phenotypic diversification is well studied in nonornamental (e.g., cichlid jaws), but not ornamental traits. Diverse feather colors in birds are produced by light absorption by pigments and/or light scattering by nanostructures. Such structural colors are deterministically related to the nanostructures that produce them and are ther...
9 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2008in Doklady Biological Sciences
A. B. Kiladze1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Russian Academy of Sciences)
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 2007in Annals of Anatomy-anatomischer Anzeiger 1.85
Lorenzo Alibardi25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Bologna)
Summary The present ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study on developing and regenerating feathers in the chick, zebrafinch and quail describes the formation of alpha-keratin cells in the sheath and their transition into beta-keratin cells in the calamus. In the first stages of feather formation cells are produced in the lower part of the follicle, migrate upward and form the elongating sheath of the feather filaments that grows outside the follicle. Sheath cells initially (anagen) contain...
15 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 2010in Anatomical Science International 1.33
Lorenzo Alibardi27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Bologna)
The present ultrastructural study on follicle of regenerating feathers of four different avian species focuses on the formation and cytology of the rachis. Epithelial cells within the bottom part of the follicle (the collar) are contacted from mesenchymal cells of the dermal papilla. The most basal part of the collar is formed by a circular epithelium containing germinal cells, while in the upper ramogenic part of the collar barb ridges are generated. Epithelial cells rest upon a basement membra...
5 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 2008in Zoology 1.94
Edwin Scholes4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Cornell University)
Abstract Ethology is rooted in the idea that behavior is composed of discrete units and sub-units that can be compared among taxa in a phylogenetic framework. This means that behavior, like morphology and genes, is inherently modular. Yet, the concept of modularity is not well integrated into how we envision the behavioral components of phenotype. Understanding ethological modularity, and its implications for animal phenotype organization and evolution, requires that we construct interpretive sc...
15 Citations Source Cite
Lorenzo Alibardi25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Bologna),
Mattia Toni19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Bologna)
Abstract Feathers are the most complex epidermal derivatives among vertebrates. The present review deals with the origin of feathers from archosaurian reptiles, the cellular and molecular aspects of feather morphogenesis, and focus on the synthesis of keratins and associated proteins. Feathers consist of different proteins among which exists a specialized group of small proteins called beta-keratins. Genes encoding these proteins in the chick genome are distributed in different chromosomes, and ...
45 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 15, 2003in Journal of Experimental Zoology 2.43
Cheng-Ming Chuong60
Estimated H-index: 60
(University of Southern California),
Ping Wu21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Southern California)
+ 5 AuthorsLianhai Hou8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Chinese Academy of Sciences)
In this special issue on the Evo-Devo of amniote integuments, Alibardi has discussed the adaptation of the integument to the land. Here we will discuss the adaptation to the sky. We first review a series of fossil discoveries representing intermediate forms of feathers or feather-like appendages from dinosaurs and Mesozoic birds from the Jehol Biota of China. We then discuss the molecular and developmental biological experiments using chicken integuments as the model. Feather forms can be modula...
54 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2004in Mechanisms of Development 1.90
Chung-Hsing Chang4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Southern California),
Ting-Xin Jiang31
Estimated H-index: 31
(University of Southern California)
+ 3 AuthorsRandall B. Widelitz39
Estimated H-index: 39
(University of Southern California)
Skin morphogenesis occurs in successive stages. First, the skin forms distinct regions (macropatterning). Then skin appendages with particular shapes and sizes form within each region (micropatterning). Ectopic DKK expression inhibited dermis formation in feather tracts and individual buds, implying the importance of Wnts, and prompted the assessment of individual Wnt functions at different morphogenetic levels using the feather model. Wnt 1, 3a, 5a and 11 initially were expressed moderately thr...
72 Citations Source Cite