"Double depression": superimposition of acute depressive episodes on chronic depressive disorders.

Published on Apr 1, 1982in American Journal of Psychiatry 13.40
· DOI :10.1176/ajp.139.4.438
Martin B. Keller113
Estimated H-index: 113
Robert W. Shapiro13
Estimated H-index: 13
Although ‘ ‘double depression ‘ ‘-major depressive disorder superimposed on an underlying chronic depression-is a f requent phenomenon, the concept has not been well formulated clinically and has rarely been described in the research literature. The authors found that 1) 26% of 101 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder had an underlying chronic depressive disorder of at least 2 years’ duration, 2) “recovery” ratesfor patients with superimposed depression differed greatly depending on whether recovery was defined as recovery from the major depressive disorder only or recovery from both disorders, and 3) patients with superimposed depression relapsed at a significantly higher rate immediately after recovery from the acute episode of depression than did patients without superimposed depression.
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  • Citations (275)
Published on Sep 1, 1981in Journal of Affective Disorders 3.79
Robert W. Shapiro13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Massachusetts Mental Health Center),
Martin B. Keller113
Estimated H-index: 113
(Harvard University)
Abstract Results from 121 patients with major depressive disorder followed-up at 6 months with a new comprehensive follow-up schedule, the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation (LIFE) indicate that: 1. (1) Forty percent of patients had not recovered from the index episode 6 months after inclusion; 2. (2) Of those patients who recovered, 19% relapsed into another RDC affective episode by the time of the 6-months follow-up, and an additional 24% developed some subsequent affective symptoms by...
50 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1980in Journal of Affective Disorders 3.79
Bruce J. Rounsaville89
Estimated H-index: 89
(Yale University),
Diane E. Sholomskas14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Yale University),
Brigitte A. Prusoff52
Estimated H-index: 52
(Yale University)
Abstract The current study was devised to assess the utility of Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) categories used to classify minor mood disorders. Similar categories are to be used in the APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual , 3rd edition. The patient sample consisted of 64 consecutive admissions to a double-blind trial of amitriptyline, perphenazine and the combination as treatment for depression. Patients who met RDC for a current episode of major depressive disorder were given 4 weeks of...
45 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 1979in Archives of General Psychiatry
Martin M. Katz18
Estimated H-index: 18
(National Institutes of Health),
Steven Secunda5
Estimated H-index: 5
(National Institutes of Health)
+ 1 AuthorsStephen H. Koslow33
Estimated H-index: 33
(National Institutes of Health)
• This is a report on the history and implications of the collaborative effort that evolved from the 1969 National Institute of Mental Health conference on the psychobiology of depression. The major issues identified at that time were the need to (1) assess relative validities of current systems of nosology and (2) retest critical biological hypotheses concerning the etiology and nature of the depressive disorders. Research was required that would be multidisciplinary and involve clinical settin...
191 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1978in Archives of General Psychiatry
Robert L. Spitzer82
Estimated H-index: 82
Jean Endicott94
Estimated H-index: 94
Eli Robins48
Estimated H-index: 48
• A crucial problem in psychiatry, affecting clinical work as well as research, is the generally low reliability of current psychiatric diagnostic procedures. This article describes the development and initial reliability studies of a set of specific diagnostic criteria for a selected group of functional psychiatric disorders, the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC). The RDC are being widely used to study a variety of research issues, particularly those related to genetics, psychobiology of selec...
5,455 Citations Source Cite
Published on Mar 1, 1948in Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1.94
Paul E. Huston9
Estimated H-index: 9
Lillian M. Locher2
Estimated H-index: 2
IN THIS report are compared the courses of illness of two series of patients with involutional psychoses, one treated with electric shock and the other not so treated. An analysis of certain factors possibly related to the course is also presented. Involutional psychosis is a psychosis occurring in middle life and the following years, without evidence of either "organic" intellectual defects or a previous affective disorder. The subtype melancholia is characterized mainly by agitation and depres...
33 Citations Source Cite
Published on Apr 1, 1960in American Sociological Review 5.06
Vera Norris1
Estimated H-index: 1
title does not really reflect the contents of this volume for the stress is on forensic and drug toxicology. The editors apparently did not think they should get experts to write about such plebian methods as those in the visual spectrophotometric range or those employing wet test methods. With this book and the aid of a good library and an exceptionally well equipped laboratory, not to speak of a specially trained staff, the physicochemical types of analysis discussed could be performed. This v...
46 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 1972in Archives of General Psychiatry
Paul Chodoff7
Estimated H-index: 7
Enduring personality patterns influence clinical depressions by coloring and altering depressive symptoms and, possibly, by predisposing certain individuals to episodes of depressive illness. The existence and characteristics of such putative predisposing personality patterns has been the subject of considerable discussion in psychiatric and psychoanalytic literature, the reliability of which, when subjected to critical review, is compromised seriously by method ological and other inadequacies. ...
160 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 1976in Archives of General Psychiatry
Joseph L. Fleiss64
Estimated H-index: 64
David L. Dunner57
Estimated H-index: 57
+ 1 AuthorsRonald R. Fieve41
Estimated H-index: 41
• The life table is presented as the method of choice for analyzing data from longitudinal studies in which the outcome under study occurs randomly and in which patients are followed up varying lengths of time. We discuss the superiority of the life table to methods typically used, the calculation of its entries, and some of the clinical uses that can be made of its results. The method is applied to follow-up data on manic-depressive patients maintained with prophylactic lithium carbonate or wit...
80 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 1980in Archives of General Psychiatry
Hagop S. Akiskal95
Estimated H-index: 95
Ted L. Rosenthal15
Estimated H-index: 15
+ 3 AuthorsAlice Scott-Strauss4
Estimated H-index: 4
• Early-onset characterological depressions are distinguished from late-onset chronic depressions that complicate the longterm course of unipolar and nonaffective illnesses. In turn, characterological depressions are divisible into at least two subtypes: (1) "Subaffective dysthymias" have even sex distribution, are often complicated by superimposed depressive episodes, rapid eye movement latency is shortened, and they tend to respond to tricyclics or lithium carbonate. In brief, they share many ...
263 Citations Source Cite
Cited By275
Danny R. Dixon2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Florida State University),
Bruce A. Thyer34
Estimated H-index: 34
(University of Georgia)
Differences between male veterans diagnosed with major depression alone and male veterans diagnosed with both major depression and dysthymia (double depression) were investigated. Assessment instruments included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). Consistent with prior literature, it was hypothesized that male veterans diagnosed with both major depression and dysthymia display more severe depressive symp...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jul 1, 1986in American Journal of Psychiatry 13.40
Carlo Faravelli40
Estimated H-index: 40
Alessandra Ambonetti6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ 1 AuthorsAdolfo Pazzagli10
Estimated H-index: 10
METHOD Of 1 01 patients suffering from primary unipolar depression who were followed up for at least 1 year after recovery from the index episode, 51 relapsed into a new depressive episode within the year of recovery. Only those variables related to the period immediately after discharge distinguished nonrelapsers from relapsers; relapsers showed higher levels of residual symptoms, inferior social adaptation, a more pathological mean personality profile, and lower tricyclic plasma levels, despit...
126 Citations Source Cite
Silvio Bellino18
Estimated H-index: 18
C. Rinaldi1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsFilippo Bogetto37
Estimated H-index: 37
1 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 1990in Psychopharmacology series
W. Maier2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Mainz),
P. Bech1
Estimated H-index: 1
The pathophysiology of anxiety, affective and schizophrenic disorders is not known. Therefore the efficacy of psychotropic drugs cannot be tested by their effect on the pathophysiology of mental disorders. The efficacy of psychotropic drugs in the treatment of acute episodes can only be evidenced by the reduction of indicators of the severity of the target symptomatology in the controlled drug trials.
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Nov 1, 1994in American Journal of Psychiatry 13.40
D.P. Devanand60
Estimated H-index: 60
Mitchell S. Nobler26
Estimated H-index: 26
+ 4 AuthorsHarold A. Sackeim84
Estimated H-index: 84
Objective: This study evaluated elderly dysthymic patients in a late life depression clinic and compared their clinical features to previous findings in young adult dysthymic patients. Method: Of 224 consecutive elderly outpatients, 40 (1 7. 9%) met criteria for dysthymic disorder. A semistructured interview was used to obtain history, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R-Patient Version and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders were used to make DSM-II...
85 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 1998in Clinical Psychology Review 9.58
Steven K. Huprich21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
Abstract This article reviews the theoretical construct of depressive personality disorder and its related research. The history of depressive personality disorder is reviewed. It is concluded that differing theories converge on similar descriptions and mechanisms of development for the depressive personality disorder. Substantial empirical work supports the diagnostic distinctiveness of depressive personality disorder in clinical populations. Past and current assessment devices for assessing de...
63 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 1993in American Journal of Psychiatry 13.40
Gregory A. Hinrichsen22
Estimated H-index: 22
Nancy A. Hernandez3
Estimated H-index: 3
Objective: This research examined demographic, clinical, and family factors in elderly depressed patients in order to ascertain which ones were related to the patients'recovery from and relapse into major depression. Method: One hundred twenty-seven elderly inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria were evaluated at hospital admission and followed prospectively for 1 year. At the time of each patient's admission, the spouse or an adult...
75 Citations Source Cite
John C. Markowitz49
Estimated H-index: 49
Many patients with dysthymia respond to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Psychotherapy of dysthymic patients has received less study, but it may have efficacy as a primary treatment or as complement to pharmacotherapy. This preliminary report offers an impression of the value of psychotherapy for 21 dysthymic responders to antidepressant medication. Successful pharmacotherapy appeared to relieve not only depressive symptoms, but also seemingly characterological traits. Yet patients who felt bette...
9 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2002in Nervenarzt 0.74
Hagop S. Akiskal95
Estimated H-index: 95
(University of California, San Diego),
Peter Brieger18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
+ 2 AuthorsAndreas Marneros30
Estimated H-index: 30
(Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
Published on Jun 1, 1989in American Journal of Psychiatry 13.40
Giles De1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center),
Robin B. Jarrett32
Estimated H-index: 32
+ 2 AuthorsRush Aj7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center)
In a longitudinal study of 30 successfully treated unipolar depressed patients, the authors evaluated number of depressive episodes, early onset of depression, and lifetime prevalence of affective disorders other than major depression as risk factors for recurrence. Early onset of depression (before age 20) and a history of affective disorders other than major depression were each significantly associated with recurrence. Number of episodes was not as powerful in predicting recurrence as either ...
55 Citations Source Cite