Sex Roles
Papers 5179
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The now extensive literature on workplace sexual harassment provides compelling evidence for the persistence and pervasiveness of the phenomenon, with about half of all U.S. women experiencing harassment at some point in their working lives (Fitzgerald and Cortina 2018). One thought-provoking and counterintuitive finding from this literature is that relatively few of these women use the label “sexual harassment” in understanding their experiences (Magley et al. 1999; McLaughlin et al. 2012). The...
In the present research we explored how women are perceived as a function of their reactions to a harassing situation (piropo). Piropos, which are very common in Spain, are appearance-related comments directed by men to unknown women on the street. In Study 1, participants read hypothetical vignettes where a woman reacted positively, negatively, or indifferently (between-participants design) to a “mild/gallant” piropo. Men and women (n = 118) evaluated the competence, warmth, capacity for leader...
Although some researchers have addressed differences in sexual desire between sexual partners, little attention has been paid to the subjective narratives of how women understand and reflect on discrepancies in sexual desire between themselves and their partners. In the present study we used a critical sexualities (Fahs and McClelland 2016) perspective to analyze semi-structured interviews with 20 women from a diverse community sample collected in a large Southwestern U.S. city in order to exami...
The debate about whether women can be as funny as men pervades the popular press, and research has sometimes supported the stereotype that men are funnier (Mickes et al. 2011). The goal of the present research was to determine whether this gender difference can be explained by differences in beliefs about one’s capability for humor (“humor self-efficacy”). Male and female U.S. undergraduates (n = 64) generated captions for 20 cartoons and rated their own humor self-efficacy. Subsequently, an ind...
Research on men’s sexual violence against women has focused on individual- and peer-level contributors of sexual violence, with comparatively less focus on broader social contributors. Using four focus groups with a total of 29 Canadian heterosexual university men and a form of discourse analysis, we moved beyond this common focus. In particular, we examined how participants talked about sexual behaviors in intimate relationships and the dominant social norms or discourses about heterosexuality ...
The Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox (GEPP) is the finding that gender differences in personality are at their largest in the most gender equal countries. Previous known studies have not examined this relationship over time. Examining this linkage is crucial to our understanding of gender differences and personality development. In the present study, we contrast evolutionary perspectives predicting a gender divergence in personality due to progression in gender equality against biosocial pers...
Agentic and communal goal orientations are widely used to predict career interests. However, the number of dimensions that underlie measures of goal orientations remains unclear. Across two studies, using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and bifactor confirmatory factor analysis, we found that communal goal orientation was unidimensional. However, agentic goal orientations comprised a single global agentic factor that represents a competence dimension plus two domain-specific fact...
Social media platforms are accused repeatedly of creating environments in which women are bullied and harassed. We argue that online aggression toward women aims to reinforce traditional feminine norms and stereotypes. In a mixed methods study, we find that this type of aggression on Twitter is common and extensive and that it can spread far beyond the original target. We locate over 2.9 million tweets in one week that contain instances of gendered insults (e.g., “bitch,” “cunt,” “slut,” or “who...
We conducted four focus group discussions followed by three studies to develop and validate a scale for measuring traditional attitudes toward women in Indian society. Study 1 (n = 592) yielded four factors (i.e., Perceived Feminine Frivolity and Selfishness; Extra-Familial Patriarchal Attitudes; Within-Family Patriarchal Attitudes; Perceived Feminine Weakness) underlying traditional negative attitudes toward women in Indian society. In Study 2 (n = 250), a four-factor reflective model offered a...
Many adolescents spend a great deal of time playing online games and may be exposed to sexism while playing. The present study aimed to understand the sexism experienced by adolescents in online gaming in South Korea. Data were collected from July to September 2018 from 25 high school students (15 female, 10 male), recruited via purposive sampling, who participated in individual interviews or focus groups. Participants were 15–18 years-old, with the average gaming experience of 6.14 years (range...
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Social environment
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