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Cell Host & Microbe
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#1Rolf Renne (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 26
In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Hancock et al., 2020 show that latent HCMV infection, and specifically miR-US5-2, induces TGF-β secretion, which inhibits myelopoiesis in uninfected HPCs. They also show that HCMV-infected cells become resistant to TGF-β signaling through targeting of SMAD3 by miR-UL22-A-3p and -5p.
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#1Igor E. Brodsky (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 21
Despite decades of study, the molecular basis for granuloma formation and restriction of chronic pathogens remains murky. Three articles reveal how Salmonella rewires macrophage polarization (Panagi et al. and Gibbs et al.) to shift the balance between M1 and M2 granuloma macrophages and resist TNF-mediated clearance (Pham et al.).
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#1Standwell NkhomaH-Index: 18
#2Simon G. Trevino (Texas Biomedical Research Institute)H-Index: 2
Last.Ian H. Cheeseman (Texas Biomedical Research Institute)H-Index: 13
view all 13 authors...
Summary In high-transmission regions, we expect parasite lineages within complex malaria infections to be unrelated due to parasite inoculations from different mosquitoes. This project was designed to test this prediction. We generated 485 single-cell genome sequences from fifteen P. falciparum malaria patients from Chikhwawa, Malawi—an area of intense transmission. Patients harbored up to seventeen unique parasite lineages. Surprisingly, parasite lineages within infections tend to be closely re...
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#1Edward C. Deehan (U of A: University of Alberta)H-Index: 4
#2Chen Yang (U of A: University of Alberta)
Last.Jens Walter (U of A: University of Alberta)H-Index: 46
view all 9 authors...
Summary Dietary fibers (DFs) impact the gut microbiome in ways often considered beneficial. However, it is unknown if precise and predictable manipulations of the gut microbiota, and especially its metabolic activity, can be achieved through DFs with discrete chemical structures. Using a dose-response trial with three type-IV resistant starches (RS4s) in healthy humans, we found that crystalline and phosphate cross-linked starch structures induce divergent and highly specific effects on microbio...
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#1Kyle D. Gibbs (Duke University)H-Index: 2
#2Erica J. Washington (Duke University)H-Index: 1
Last.Dennis C. Ko (Duke University)H-Index: 16
view all 8 authors...
Summary Bacteria masterfully co-opt and subvert host signal transduction. As a paradigmatic example, Salmonella uses two type-3 secretion systems to inject effector proteins that facilitate Salmonella entry, establishment of an intracellular niche, and modulation of immune responses. We previously demonstrated that the Salmonella anti-inflammatory response activator SarA (Stm2585, GogC, PagJ, SteE) activates the host transcription factor STAT3 to drive expression of immunomodulatory STAT3-target...
2 CitationsSource
#1Fanli Yang (Sichuan University)H-Index: 1
#2S. Lin (Sichuan University)
Last.Yanwei Cheng (Sichuan University)
view all 23 authors...
Summary Rabies virus (RABV), the etiological agent for the lethal disease of rabies, is a deadly zoonotic pathogen. The RABV glycoprotein (RABV-G) is a key factor mediating virus entry and the major target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we report the crystal structures of RABV-G solved in the free form at ∼pH-8.0 and in the complex form with a neutralizing antibody 523-11 at ∼pH-6.5, respectively. RABV-G has three domains, and the basic-to-acidic pH change results in large domain re-orientati...
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#1Matthew Durrant (Stanford University)H-Index: 1
#2Michelle Li (Stanford University)H-Index: 2
Last.Ami B. Bhatt (Stanford University)H-Index: 25
view all 5 authors...
Summary Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) contribute to bacterial adaptation and evolution; however, high-throughput, unbiased MGE detection remains challenging. We describe MGEfinder, a bioinformatic toolbox that identifies integrative MGEs and their insertion sites by using short-read sequencing data. MGEfinder identifies the genomic site of each MGE insertion and infers the identity of the inserted sequence. We apply MGEfinder to 12,374 sequenced isolates of 9 prevalent bacterial pathogens, incl...
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#1Ioanna Panagi (Imperial College London)H-Index: 1
#2Elliott Jennings (Imperial College London)H-Index: 3
Last.Teresa L. M. Thurston (Imperial College London)H-Index: 13
view all 15 authors...
Summary Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens antagonize anti-bacterial immunity through translocated effector proteins that inhibit pro-inflammatory signaling. In addition, the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium initiates an anti-inflammatory transcriptional response in macrophages through its effector protein SteE. However, the target(s) and molecular mechanism of SteE remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SteE converts both the amino acid and substrate specifi...
2 CitationsSource
#1Trung H.M. Pham (Stanford University)H-Index: 9
#2Trung H.M. Pham (Stanford University)H-Index: 2
Last.Denise M. Monack (Stanford University)H-Index: 60
view all 11 authors...
Summary Many intracellular bacteria can establish chronic infection and persist in tissues within granulomas composed of macrophages. Granuloma macrophages exhibit heterogeneous polarization states, or phenotypes, that may be functionally distinct. Here, we elucidate a host-pathogen interaction that controls granuloma macrophage polarization and long-term pathogen persistence during Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) infection. We show that STm persists within splenic granulomas that are densely popul...
2 CitationsSource
#1Leonor García-Bayona (Brigham and Women's Hospital)H-Index: 3
#2Laurie E. Comstock (Brigham and Women's Hospital)H-Index: 32
Bacteroides genomes encode a large repertoire of proteins dedicated to the utilization of diverse plant polysaccharides and host glycans. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Glowacki et al. (2020) show that B. thetaiotaomicron can also extract the monosaccharide ribose from nucleosides and characterize proteins necessary for its utilization.
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