Cell Host & Microbe
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has had devastating global impacts and will continue to have dramatic effects on public health for years to come. A better understanding of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 will be critical for the application and development of therapeutics. The degree to which the innate immune response confers protection or induces pathogenesis through a dysregulated immune response remains unclear. In this review, we discuss what is known...
#1Joseph VerdiH-Index: 1
#2Ronnie Zipkin (NYU: New York University)
Last. Jayne Raper (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 21
view all 9 authors...
Summary Trypanosomiasis is a devastating neglected tropical disease affecting livestock and humans. Humans are susceptible to two Trypanosoma brucei subspecies but protected from other trypanosomes by circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) complexes called trypanosome lytic factors (TLFs) 1 and 2. TLFs contain apolipoprotein L-1 contributing to lysis and haptoglobin-related protein (HPR), which can function as a ligand for a parasite receptor. TLF2 also uniquely contains non-covalently assoc...
#1Bidong D. Nguyen (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 1
#2V Miguelangel Cuenca (ETH Zurich)
Last. Franziska Besser (ETH Zurich)
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Summary Initial enteropathogen growth in the microbiota-colonized gut is poorly understood. Salmonella Typhimurium is metabolically adaptable and can harvest energy by anaerobic respiration using microbiota-derived hydrogen (H2) as an electron donor and fumarate as an electron acceptor. As fumarate is scarce in the gut, the source of this electron acceptor is unclear. Here, transposon sequencing analysis along the colonization trajectory of S. Typhimurium implicates the C4-dicarboxylate antiport...
#1Yanling Wu (Fudan University)H-Index: 6
Last. Youhua Xie (Fudan University)H-Index: 1
view all 14 authors...
The worldwide spread of COVID-19 highlights the need for an efficient approach to 31 rapidly develop therapeutics and prophylactics against SARS-CoV-2. The 32 SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, containing the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and S1 33 subunit involved in receptor engagement, is a potential therapeutic target. We describe 34 the development of a phage-displayed single-domain antibody library by grafting 35 naive complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) into framework regions of a 36 human ...
#1George Dimopoulos (UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)H-Index: 41
#2Quirijn de Mast (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 20
Last. Jacobien J. Hoogerwerf (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 1
view all 13 authors...
SUMMARY Dysregulation of inflammation is hypothesized to play a crucial role in the severe complications of COVID-19, with IL-1/IL-6 pathway being central. Here, we report on the treatment of eight severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients-- seven hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) in Greece and one non-ICU patient in the Netherlands-- with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. All patients scored positive for the hemophagocytosis score (HScore) and were diagnosed with secondary hemo...
#1Dennis R. Burton (Scripps Research Institute)H-Index: 139
#2Laura M. WalkerH-Index: 15
As scientists consider SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design, we discuss problems that may be encountered and how to tackle them by what we term “rational vaccine design.” We further discuss approaches to pan-coronavirus vaccines. We draw on experiences from recent research on several viruses including HIV and influenza, as well as coronaviruses.
#1Vanessa V. Sarathy (UTMB: University of Texas Medical Branch)H-Index: 7
#2Alan D.T. Barrett (UTMB: University of Texas Medical Branch)H-Index: 63
In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Young et al. shed light on dengue virus 3-specific epitopes. Mapping of human monoclonal antibodies led to the discovery of six quaternary antigenic sites with strong neutralizing activity suggesting that epitopes involved with protective immunity may be more complex than previously realized.
#1Michael S. DiamondH-Index: 80
#2Theodore C. Pierson (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 57
The rapid emergence of a highly pathogenic, readily transmissible coronavirus has resulted in a global pandemic, affecting millions and destabilizing economies. This catastrophe triggered a clarion call for the immediate deployment of a protective vaccine. We describe the unique challenges of developing a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in a pandemic setting.
#1Joseph P. Dillard (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)H-Index: 25
Exfoliation is used as a mechanism to remove bacterially infected cells from the body. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Muenzner and Hauck (2020) find that Neisseria gonorrhoeae blocks exfoliation by producing nitric oxide at the bacterial-host cell interface to promote tissue integrity. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli stimulates the same pathway, suggesting a common mechanism among bacterial pathogens.
#1David L. Sacks (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 77
The phagosomal pathogen Leishmania appears unaffected by deliberate changes in the early Th1/Th2 balance. In this issue, Carneiro et al. explain these paradoxical results by showing that manipulations affecting IFN-γ-mediated phagocyte activation are counteracted by effects on IFN-γ-dependent recruitment of CCR2+ monocytes permissive to parasite growth.
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