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Published on Jan 9, 2019in Cell 31.40
Jonathan J. Ruprecht12
Estimated H-index: 12
(MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit),
Martin S. King31
Estimated H-index: 31
(MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit)
+ 5 AuthorsEdmund R. S. Kunji36
Estimated H-index: 36
(MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit)
Summary Mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers transport ADP into the mitochondrial matrix for ATP synthesis, and ATP out to fuel the cell, by cycling between cytoplasmic-open and matrix-open states. The structure of the cytoplasmic-open state is known, but it has proved difficult to understand the transport mechanism in the absence of a structure in the matrix-open state. Here, we describe the structure of the matrix-open state locked by bongkrekic acid bound in the ADP/ATP-binding site at the bottom o...
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Published on Feb 1, 2019in Cell 31.40
Rastislav Horos9
Estimated H-index: 9
,
Magdalena Büscher + 11 AuthorsAsli Adak
Summary Vault RNAs (vtRNA) are small non-coding RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III found in many eukaryotes. Although they have been linked to drug resistance, apoptosis, and viral replication, their molecular functions remain unclear. Here, we show that vault RNAs directly bind the autophagy receptor sequestosome-1/p62 in human and murine cells. Overexpression of human vtRNA1-1 inhibits, while its antisense LNA-mediated knockdown enhances p62-dependent autophagy. Starvation of cells reduces...
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Published on Mar 1, 2019in Cell 31.40
Jacek Kominek4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Wisconsin-Madison),
Drew T. Doering4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Wisconsin-Madison)
+ 10 AuthorsSteven D. Karlen9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Summary Operons are a hallmark of bacterial genomes, where they allow concerted expression of functionally related genes as single polycistronic transcripts. They are rare in eukaryotes, where each gene usually drives expression of its own independent messenger RNAs. Here, we report the horizontal operon transfer of a siderophore biosynthesis pathway from relatives of Escherichia coli into a group of budding yeast taxa. We further show that the co-linearly arranged secondary metabolism genes are...
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Published on Mar 1, 2019in Cell 31.40
Jung-Hoon Yoon2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Texas Medical Branch),
Mark J. McArthur18
Estimated H-index: 18
(University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center)
+ 4 AuthorsSatya Prakash44
Estimated H-index: 44
(University of Texas Medical Branch)
Summary Cancers from sun-exposed skin accumulate “driver” mutations, causally implicated in oncogenesis. Because errors incorporated during translesion synthesis (TLS) opposite UV lesions would generate these mutations, TLS mechanisms are presumed to underlie cancer development. To address the role of TLS in skin cancer formation, we determined which DNA polymerase is responsible for generating UV mutations, analyzed the relative contributions of error-free TLS by Polη and error-prone TLS by Pol...
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Published on Feb 1, 2019in Cell 31.40
Shashi Gujar15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Dalhousie University),
John C. Bell55
Estimated H-index: 55
(Ottawa Hospital Research Institute),
Jean-Simon Diallo20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Ottawa Hospital Research Institute)
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and kill cancer cells without harming normal cells. OVs can revert cancer-associated immune suppression and initiate clinically meaningful antitumor immune responses. OVs and their resultant immunological events can act at both primary and metastatic sites. Thus, OVs can be exploited for cancer gene therapies and immunotherapies alone or in combination with other interventions, including immune checkpoint blockade.
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Published on Jan 1, 2019in Cell 31.40
Kishore Jaganathan8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Illumina),
Sofia Kyriazopoulou Panagiotopoulou1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Illumina)
+ 14 AuthorsGrace B. Schwartz3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of California, San Francisco)
Summary The splicing of pre-mRNAs into mature transcripts is remarkable for its precision, but the mechanisms by which the cellular machinery achieves such specificity are incompletely understood. Here, we describe a deep neural network that accurately predicts splice junctions from an arbitrary pre-mRNA transcript sequence, enabling precise prediction of noncoding genetic variants that cause cryptic splicing. Synonymous and intronic mutations with predicted splice-altering consequence validate ...
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Published on Feb 1, 2019in Cell 31.40
Asja Radja1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Pennsylvania),
Eric M. Horsley1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Pennsylvania)
+ 1 AuthorsAlison M. Sweeney10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Pennsylvania)
Summary The ornately geometric walls of pollen grains have inspired scientists for decades. We show that the evolved diversity of these patterns is entirely recapitulated by a biophysical model in which an initially uniform polysaccharide layer in the extracellular space, mechanically coupled to the cell membrane, phase separates to a spatially modulated state. Experiments reveal this process occurring in living cells. We observe that in ∼10% of extant species, this phase separation reaches equi...
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Published on Jan 1, 2019in Cell 31.40
Emily Lorenzen3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Rockefeller University),
Thomas P. Sakmar16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Rockefeller University)
Structures of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in complex with an "ultrapotent" synthetic cannabinoid and its G protein (Krishna Kumar et al., 2019) and CB2 in complex with a new rationally designed inverse agonist (Li et al., 2019) provide unique snapshots of the molecular pharmacology of cannabinoids.
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Published on Jan 1, 2019in Cell 31.40
Matthew J. Walker1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Washington),
Gabriele Varani54
Estimated H-index: 54
(University of Washington)
Regulation of protein-DNA binding specificity occurs through myriad mechanisms. Boudet et al. discover yet a new form of specificity through allosteric regulation, an ATP-induced structural switch that mediates specific DNA recognition in an archaeoeukaryotic primase.
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Published on Mar 1, 2019in Cell 31.40
Jiang Dai3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Yi-Jiao Huang2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 24 AuthorsShao-Yi Huang1
Estimated H-index: 1
Summary The presence of DNA in the cytoplasm is normally a sign of microbial infections and is quickly detected by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to elicit anti-infection immune responses. However, chronic activation of cGAS by self-DNA leads to severe autoimmune diseases for which no effective treatment is available yet. Here we report that acetylation inhibits cGAS activation and that the enforced acetylation of cGAS by aspirin robustly suppresses self-DNA-induced autoimmunity. We find that cG...
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