Microbes in the same community but with distinct niches can have unique long stretches of perfect sequence identity due to recent genetic exchange. Arevalo et al. (2019) use this as a starting point for defining ecologically-relevant populations within a community and to identify the genes that appear to be driving divergence between populations.
(ISMMS: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)+ -3 AuthorsChad Brocker21
Estimated H-index: 21
(NIH: National Institutes of Health)
Summary Caloric restriction is known to improve inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which reduced caloric intake modulates inflammation are poorly understood. Here we show that short-term fasting reduced monocyte metabolic and inflammatory activity and drastically reduced the number of circulating monocytes. Regulation of peripheral monocyte numbers was dependent on dietary glucose and protein levels. Specifically, we found that activation of the low-energy sensor 5′...
In this issue of Cell, Casellas and colleagues provide insights into the structural and functional aspects of the mammalian multi-subunit Mediator complex, a conserved and essential transcriptional coregulator. Combining cryo-EM, genetic, and genomic analyses, the work sheds light on Mediator’s mode of action as a functional bridge between enhancers and promoters.
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles), Xinghong Dai9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)+ -3 AuthorsZ. Hong Zhou43
Estimated H-index: 43
(UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)
Summary Assembly of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) begins at a bacteriophage-like portal complex that nucleates formation of an icosahedral capsid with capsid-associated tegument complexes (CATCs) and facilitates translocation of an ∼150-kb dsDNA genome, followed by acquisition of a pleomorphic tegument and envelope. Because of deviation from icosahedral symmetry, KSHV portal and tegument structures have largely been obscured in previous studies. Using symmetry-relaxed cryo-EM, w...
Summary The CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) balances immunity and tolerance by homeostatic trafficking of immune cells. In cancer, CCR7-mediated trafficking leads to lymph node metastasis, suggesting the receptor as a promising therapeutic target. Here, we present the crystal structure of human CCR7 fused to the protein Sialidase NanA by using data up to 2.1 A resolution. The structure shows the ligand Cmp2105 bound to an intracellular allosteric binding pocket. A sulfonamide group, characteristi...
(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)+ -3 AuthorsMartin F. Polz42
Estimated H-index: 42
(MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Summary Delineating ecologically meaningful populations among microbes is important for identifying their roles in environmental and host-associated microbiomes. Here, we introduce a metric of recent gene flow, which when applied to co-existing microbes, identifies congruent genetic and ecological units separated by strong gene flow discontinuities from their next of kin. We then develop a pipeline to identify genome regions within these units that show differential adaptation and allow mapping ...
Summary Adaptive immunity provides life-long protection by generating central and effector memory T cells and the most recently described tissue resident memory T (TRM) cells. However, the cellular origin of CD4 TRM cells and their contribution to host defense remain elusive. Using IL-17A tracking-fate mouse models, we found that a significant fraction of lung CD4 TRM cells derive from IL-17A-producing effector (TH17) cells following immunization with heat-killed Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp). These...
Summary Metabolic conditions affect the developmental tempo of animals. Developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs) must therefore synchronize their dynamics with a variable timescale. We find that layered repression of genes couples GRN output with variable metabolism. When repressors of transcription or mRNA and protein stability are lost, fewer errors in Drosophila development occur when metabolism is lowered. We demonstrate the universality of this phenomenon by eliminating the entire micr...
Exploration of tiny protein-coding sequences within the human microbiome reveals thousands of conserved gene families that have been overlooked by traditional analyses. These small proteins may play key roles in the crosstalk among bacteria within the microbiome and in interactions with their human hosts.