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The Relation between Motivational Patterns and Achievement Cognitions through the Elementary School Years.

Published on Jan 1, 1995in Merrill-palmer Quarterly
Kathleen M. Cain5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
Abstract
Among children in fifth and higher grades, the helpless motivational pattern is associated with the idea that intelligence is a fixed entity. Cognitive concommitants of helplessness in younger children, however, are not well understood. To identify developmental relations between motivational patterns and cognitions about ability and achievement, 139 first, third, and fifth graders' beliefs about ability and achievement were assessed, as well as their motivational responses to challenging puzzles. A sizeable minority of children at all ages showed the maladaptive helpless pattern (nonpersistence, negative expectations, etc.). Among older children, the helpless and mastery orientations were associated with differences in whether intelligence was seen as fixed or malleable. Younger children with the helpless pattern gave outcome-oriented explanations for school grades, whereas those with a mastery orientation gave process-oriented explanations
  • References (26)
  • Citations (153)
References26
Newest
Published on Nov 1, 1993in Cognition & Emotion2.37
Karen Caplovitz Barrett20
Estimated H-index: 20
(CSU: Colorado State University),
Carolyn Zahn-Waxler56
Estimated H-index: 56
,
Pamela M. Cole28
Estimated H-index: 28
Abstract Recent research and theory highlights the distinctive features of shame vs. guilt, as well as the important implications of that distinction for typical and atypical behaviour regulation. Briefly, shame is characterised by withdrawal and hiding from judgemental others, and guilt by making amends–repairing and confessing. The present study was aimed at determining whether a shame-relevant and a guilt-relevant pattern of responses to a standard violation could be distinguished in toddlers...
Published on Jun 1, 1992in Child Development5.02
Michael Lewis77
Estimated H-index: 77
(UMDNJ: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey),
Steven M. Alessandri17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Drexel University),
Margaret Wolan Sullivan29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UMDNJ: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey)
3-year-old children were presented with easy and difficult tasks and their emotional responses of shame and pride were observed. No shame was shown when subjects succeeded on the tasks and no pride was shown when they failed. Significantly more shame was shown when subjects failed easy tasks than when they failed difficult tasks, and significantly more pride was shown when subjects succeeded on difficult than on easy tasks. While there were no sex differences in task failures, girls showed more ...
Deborah Stipek49
Estimated H-index: 49
,
Susan L. Recchia9
Estimated H-index: 9
+ 1 AuthorsMichael Lewis77
Estimated H-index: 77
Published on Apr 1, 1992in Child Development5.02
Gail D. Heyman28
Estimated H-index: 28
(UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign),
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University),
Kathleen M. Cain5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Gettysburg College)
Motivational helplessness, linked to conceptions of intelligence, has been well documented in older children. While some researchers have reported that children just starting school are motivationally invulnerable, others have found evidence of helplessness when these children encounter failure. The present study seeks to determine whether the reactions associated with helplessness can be identified in a new context, that of criticism, and whether any such responses are related to the child's co...
Published on Jan 22, 1992
Michael Lewis77
Estimated H-index: 77
Shame, the quintessential human emotion, received little attention during the years in which the central forces believed to be motivating us were identified as primitive instincts like sex and aggression. Now, redressing the balance, there is an explosion of interest in the self-conscious emotion. Much of our psychic lives involve the negotiation of shame, asserts Michael Lewis, internationally known developmental and clinical psychologist. Shame is normal, not pathological, though opposite reac...
Published on Jan 1, 1990
Valanne L. Henderson3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
Published on Jan 1, 1990
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
(Columbia University)
Published on Jun 1, 1989in Child Development5.02
Deborah Stipek49
Estimated H-index: 49
,
Douglas J. Mac Iver16
Estimated H-index: 16
Revue des etudes sur les jugements par les enfants de leurs propres competences intellectuelles et de leurs criteres d'evaluation du developpement de ces competences
Published on Apr 1, 1989
Carol S. Dweck76
Estimated H-index: 76
,
Valanne L. Henderson3
Estimated H-index: 3
Published on Feb 1, 1988in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology2.98
William S. Rholes19
Estimated H-index: 19
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Melinda Jones2
Estimated H-index: 2
(A&M: Texas A&M University),
Cindi Wade1
Estimated H-index: 1
(A&M: Texas A&M University)
Abstract Previous research suggests that children's understanding of dispositions (i.e., personality traits and abilities) changes as they grow older. Even though they may apply dispositional labels to individual behaviors, younger children do not seem to view dispositions as stable characteristics that produce consistent patterns of behavior, at least not to the same extent that older children and adults do. In the present studies we examined how an unstable versus stable view of dispositions m...
Cited By153
Newest
Andres S. Bustamante2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UCI: University of California, Irvine),
Daryl B. Greenfield19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UM: University of Miami)
Published on Mar 30, 2019in Metacognition and Learning2.75
Miriam Compagnoni (UZH: University of Zurich), Yves Karlen (NU: Northwestern University), Katharina Maag Merki9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UZH: University of Zurich)
Individuals hold different mindsets encompassing beliefs about trait stability (stable vs. malleable) and goal orientations (performance vs. mastery). These motivational beliefs affect behavioral self-regulation, which is an important predictor of school success and includes both executive functions (EF) and classroom behavioral self-regulation (CBSR). In this study, we examined the structure of mindsets in kindergarteners and the relations with EF and CBSR by interviewing 147 kindergarteners (5...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in SAGE Open
Jenni L. Redifer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Western Kentucky University),
Christine L. Bae2
Estimated H-index: 2
(VCU: Virginia Commonwealth University),
Morgan DeBusk-Lane1
Estimated H-index: 1
(VCU: Virginia Commonwealth University)
Creative thinking shares many characteristics with traditional complex tasks. We investigated whether implicit theories of creativity would affect creative thinking in a way similar to the impact o...
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Elizabeth R. Kazakoff7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Melissa Orkin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Tufts University)
+ 1 AuthorsRachel L. Schechter2
Estimated H-index: 2
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Paulina Arango (University of Los Andes)
Motivation is a psychological construct that refers to the disposition to act and direct behavior according to a goal. Like most of psychological processes, motivation develops throughout the life span and is influenced by both biological and environmental factors. The aim of this chapter is to summarize research on the development of motivation from infancy to adolescence, which can help understand the typical developmental trajectories of this ability and its relation to learning. We will star...
Christopher A. Was13
Estimated H-index: 13
(KSU: Kent State University)
The application relates to a chuck (10) with a coupling and a housing (34) for clamping cap-screws and/or studs having a screw spindle (11), a drive spindle (12) fixed axially in relation to the screw spindle (11) with at least one spring-loaded and axially movable coupling (18) which can be drivably secured to the screw spindle (11) by a counter-component (59) and a spring-loaded, axially movable adjusting sleeve (22) which can render the coupling inoperative. The coupling (18) has at least one...
Published on Aug 1, 2017in Aids Patient Care and Stds3.74
Abstract Research involving adolescent and young African American (AA) females has demonstrated that they face uncontrollable obstacles which can interfere with the negotiation of safer sexual behaviors. If these obstacles are perceived as uncontrollable, then these females may be at risk for the development of Learned Helplessness (LH). As the LH model predicts, if these obstacles are believed not to be in their control, it may lead to deficits in motivational or cognitive decision-making, defi...
Published on Jun 1, 2017in Journal of Youth and Adolescence3.26
Heather A. Priess-Groben3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Simpson College),
Janet Shibley Hyde66
Estimated H-index: 66
(UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Mathematics motivation declines for many adolescents, which limits future educational and career options. The present study sought to identify predictors of this decline by examining whether implicit theories assessed in ninth grade (incremental/entity) predicted course-taking behaviors and utility value in college. The study integrated implicit theory with variables from expectancy-value theory to examine potential moderators and mediators of the association of implicit theories with college ma...
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