The bureaucratization of science

Published on Oct 1, 2015in Research Policy 4.66
· DOI :10.1016/j.respol.2015.04.010
John Walsii25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Georgia Institute of Technology),
You-Na Lee5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Georgia Institute of Technology)
Abstract
While science is traditionally treated as a distinct domain of work organization, increasingly science is organized around larger and larger work groups that resemble small firms, with knowledge as the product. The growth of organized science raises the question of whether we also see a bureaucratic structuring of scientific work groups as predicted by organization theory, with implications for the academic credit system and scientific labor markets. Building on organization theory, we examine the relation between project group size, technical environment, and bureaucratic structuring of scientific work. Using survey data on scientific projects, we find size predicts bureaucratic structuring, with declining marginal effects. We also find that interdisciplinarity and task interdependence have distinct effects on bureaucratic structuring. Finally, the relationship between size and some dimensions of bureaucratic structuring is contingent on levels of work group interdependence in the field. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for policy debates about authorship and scientific careers.
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  • Citations (24)
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Paul R. Lawrence13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
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Estimated H-index: 17
4,087 Citations
Published on Feb 1, 1968in Physics Today 4.37
Donald C. Peltz2
Estimated H-index: 2
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439 Citations Source Cite
Published on Sep 1, 1959in Administrative Science Quarterly 5.88
Arthur L. Stinchcornbe24
Estimated H-index: 24
1 “Professionalized” here means lhat work­ ers get technical socialization lo achieve a publicly recognized occupational compe­ tence. “ Public recognition” involves prefer­ ential hiring (ideally to the point of excludin£ all others) of workers who have proved their competence to an agency external to the hiring firm or consumer. Often this agency is a professional association compo:>cd exclusively of qualified persons and more or less exhaustive of the occupation. This professional association...
292 Citations Source Cite
Published on Dec 1, 2008in Stata Journal 2.16
Brady T. West38
Estimated H-index: 38
(University of Michigan),
Patricia Berglund40
Estimated H-index: 40
(University of Michigan),
Steven G. Heeringa43
Estimated H-index: 43
(University of Michigan)
In recent years, general-purpose statistical software packages have incorporated new procedures that feature several useful options for design-based analysis of complex-sample survey data. A common and frequently desired technique for analysis of survey data in practice is the restriction of estimation to a subpopulation of interest. These subpopulations are often referred to interchangeably in a variety of fields as subclasses, subgroups, and domains. In this article, we consider two approaches ...
60 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2007
Wesley Shrum24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Joel Genuth5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Ivan Chompalov5
Estimated H-index: 5
Collaboration among organizations is rapidly becoming common in scientific research as globalization and new communication technologies make it possible for researchers from different locations and institutions to work together on common projects. These scientific and technological collaborations are part of a general trend toward more fluid, flexible, and temporary organizational arrangements, but they have received very limited scholarly attention. Structures of Scientific Collaboration is the...
122 Citations
Published on Mar 1, 2005in National Bureau of Economic Research
Laure Turner3
Estimated H-index: 3
(National Institute of Statistics)
In order to study networks of collaboration between researchers, we propose a simple measure of the intensity of collaboration, which can be easily interpreted in terms of relative probability and aggregated at the laboratory level. We first use this measure to characterize the relations of collaboration, as defined in terms of co-publication between the scientists of the French "Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique" (CNRS) in the field of condensed-matter physic, during the six-year per...
31 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 2000in Scientometrics 2.17
P Ottarseglen53
Estimated H-index: 53
,
Dag W. Aksnes17
Estimated H-index: 17
To analyse the relationship between research group size and scientific productivity within the highly cooperative research environment characteristic of contemporary biomedical science, an investigation of Norwegian Microbiology was undertaken. By an author-gated retrieval from ISI's database National Science Indicators on Diskette (NSIOD), of journal articles published by Norwegian scientists involved in microbiological research during the period 1992–1996, a total of 976 microbiological and 93...
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Published on May 18, 2007in Science 41.06
Stefan Wuchty23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Northwestern University),
Benjamin F. Jones19
Estimated H-index: 19
(National Bureau of Economic Research),
Brian Uzzi33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Northwestern University)
We have used 19.9 million papers over 5 decades and 2.1 million patents to demonstrate that teams increasingly dominate solo authors in the production of knowledge. Research is increasingly done in teams across nearly all fields. Teams typically produce more frequently cited research than individuals do, and this advantage has been increasing over time. Teams now also produce the exceptionally high-impact research, even where that distinction was once the domain of solo authors. These results ar...
1,307 Citations Source Cite
Published on Aug 1, 1973in IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 1.42
J. T. Wallmark3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Chalmers University of Technology),
H. E. S. Holmqvist1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Chalmers University of Technology)
+ 1 AuthorsB. Langered1
Estimated H-index: 1
The result of an earlier investigation, that the efficiency of research teams increases with team size, has been verified by extending the investigation to further samples. The increase is exponential with team size and amounts to about a threefold increase in productivity per team member as the team is increased from 1 to 50 members. No optimum team size was found. Of two possible reasons for the increased efficiency of large teams, improved research environment (better service, better equipmen...
43 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jun 1, 1973in Administrative Science Quarterly 5.88
John Child43
Estimated H-index: 43
Size is examined as a predictor of organization structure with data from a British sample of business organizations, supplemented by findings from British labor unions, engineering firms, and the Aston sample of varied work organizations.' Where possible, comparison is also made with the results of an American study. While the broad outlines of formal organization structures are predictable with a high degree of confidence from a knowledge of organization size, a comparison of size-structure reg...
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Cited By24
Published on Aug 20, 2015in Laws
S DoveEdward14
Estimated H-index: 14
,
Vural Ozdemir25
Estimated H-index: 25
The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate expl...
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Published on Apr 1, 2015in Research Policy 4.66
You-Na Lee5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Georgia Institute of Technology),
John Walsii25
Estimated H-index: 25
(National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies),
Jian Wang11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
The increasing dominance of team science highlights the importance of understanding the effects of team composition on the creativity of research results. In this paper, we analyze the effect of team size, and field and task variety on creativity. Furthermore, we unpack two facets of creativity in science: novelty and impact. We find that increasing team size has an inverted-U shaped relation with novelty. We also find that the size–novelty relationship is largely due to the relation between siz...
46 Citations Source Cite
Published on Feb 1, 2016in Research Policy 4.66
Jian Wang11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
This paper studies the relationship between egocentric collaboration networks and knowledge creation at the individual level. For egocentric networks we focus on the characteristics of tie strength and tie configuration, and knowledge creation is assessed by the number of citations. Using a panel of 1042 American scientists in five disciplines and fixed effects models, we found an inverted U-shaped relationship between network average tie strength and citation impact, because an increase in tie ...
35 Citations Source Cite
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Carter Bloch13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Aarhus University),
Jesper W. Schneider15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Aarhus University),
Thomas Sinkjær55
Estimated H-index: 55
(National Research Foundation of South Africa)
The present paper examines the relation between size, accumulation and performance for research grants, where we examine the relation between grant size for Centres of Excellence (CoE) funded by the Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF) and various ex post research performance measures, including impact and shares of highly cited articles. We examine both the relation between size and performance and also how performance for CoEs evolves over the course of grant periods. In terms of dynamic...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on May 1, 2016in National Bureau of Economic Research
Carolin Haeussler10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Passau),
Henry Sauermann9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Georgia Institute of Technology)
Even though teams have become the dominant mode of knowledge production, little is known regarding how they divide work among their members. Conceptualizing knowledge production as a process involving a number of functional activities, we first develop a conceptual framework to study the division of labor in teams. This framework highlights three complementary perspectives: (1) individual level (the degree to which team members specialize vs. work as generalists), (2) activity level (the degree ...
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Published on Nov 1, 2016in Annals of Tourism Research 5.09
Bob McKercher43
Estimated H-index: 43
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University),
Vincent Wing Sun Tung9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
•Here is the revision Articles published in tourism and hospitality journals over 36years were analysed.•The study examines authorship patterns.•The number of papers has grown exponentially, but production per author has fallen.•Fractional authorship gives the misleading impression of greater productivity.
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Published on Feb 1, 2018in Research Policy 4.66
Ohid Yaqub5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Sussex)
Serendipity, the notion of researchers making unexpected and beneficial discoveries, has played an important role in debates about the feasibility and desirability of targeting public R&D investments. The purpose of this paper is to show that serendipity can come in different forms and come about in a variety of ways. The archives of Robert K Merton, who introduced the term to the social sciences, were used as a starting point for gathering literature and examples. We identify four types of sere...
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Published on Jun 1, 2017in Tourism Management 5.92
Vincent Wing Sun Tung9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University),
Bob McKercher43
Estimated H-index: 43
(Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
The career prospects of tourism and hospitality academics have changed radically in the past 40 years, and this study examines how senior researchers, mid-career academics, and new and emerging scholars are negotiating the rapidly changing research, publishing, and ultimately career progression landscape. A total of 264 respondents were recruited via TRINET and CIRET. Respondents assessed their perceived pressures to adopt research and publishing approaches and provided career advice that were a...
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Published on Jun 1, 2017in Photosynthetica 1.74
M. Tsimilli-Michael1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
P. Haldimann1
Estimated H-index: 1
In this article, related to a talk given at the International Meeting “Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability–2015”, we honor Dr. George C. Papageorgiou, a highly respected scientist and an outstanding teacher and mentor. Praising him for these virtues, indispensable for research sustainability, we also bring to discussion aspects that undermine nowadays both education and research sustainability. We argue that these aspects are principally created by the predominant bureaucratic system, whi...
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Published on May 1, 2017in Research Policy 4.66
Katia Levecque16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Ghent University),
Frederik Anseel21
Estimated H-index: 21
(Ghent University)
+ 2 AuthorsLydia Gisle7
Estimated H-index: 7
Research policy observers are increasingly concerned about the potential impact of current academic working conditions on mental health, particularly in PhD students. The aim of the current study is threefold. First, we assess the prevalence of mental health problems in a representative sample of PhD students in Flanders, Belgium (N = 3659). Second, we compare PhD students to three other samples: (1) highly educated in the general population (N = 769); (2) highly educated employees (N = 592); an...
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