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Goal sketching: An Agile Approach to Clarifying Requirements

Published on Jan 1, 2008
Kenneth Duncan Boness5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Reading),
Ay Uk1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsKecheng Liu22
Estimated H-index: 22
(University of Reading)
Abstract
This paper describes a technique that can be used as part of a simple and practical agile method for requirements engineering. It is based on disciplined goal-responsibility modelling but eschews formality in favour of a set of practicality objectives. The technique can be used together with Agile Programming to develop software in internet time. We illustrate the technique and introduce lazy refinement, responsibility composition and context sketching. Goal sketching has been used in a number of real-world development projects, one of which is described here.
  • References (27)
  • Citations (6)
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References27
Newest
#1Kenneth Duncan Boness (University of Reading)H-Index: 5
#2Rachel HarrisonH-Index: 21
Goal orientation is acknowledged as an important paradigm in requirements engineering. The structure of a goal-responsibility model provides opportunities for appraising the intention of a development. Creating a suitable model under agile constraints (time, incompleteness and catching up after an initial burst of creativity) can be challenging. Here we propose a marriage of UML activity diagrams with goal sketching in order to facilitate the production of goal-responsibility models under these ...
5 CitationsSource
#1Kenneth Duncan Boness (University of Reading)H-Index: 5
Last. Rachel HarrisonH-Index: 21
view all 3 authors...
A simple and practical technique for assessing the risks, that is, the potential for error, and consequent loss, in software system development, acquired during a requirements engineering phase is described. The technique uses a goal-based requirements analysis as a framework to identify and rate a set of key issues in order to arrive at estimates of the feasibility and adequacy of the requirements. The technique is illustrated and how it has been applied to a real systems development project is...
16 CitationsSource
#1Lan Cao (ODU: Old Dominion University)H-Index: 16
#2Balasubramaniam Ramesh (GSU: Georgia State University)H-Index: 30
An analysis of data from 16 software development organizations reveals seven agile RE practices, along with their benefits and challenges. The rapidly changing business environment in which most organizations operate is challenging traditional requirements-engineering (RE) approaches. Software development organizations often must deal with requirements that tend to evolve quickly and become obsolete even before project completion. Rapid changes in competitive threats, stakeholder preferences, de...
267 CitationsSource
#1Kenneth Duncan Boness (University of Reading)H-Index: 5
#2Rachel HarrisonH-Index: 21
This paper describes a technique that can be used as part of a simple and practical agile method for requirements engineering. The technique can be used together with Agile Programming to develop software in internet time. We illustrate the technique and introduce lazy refinement, responsibility composition and context sketching. Goal sketching has been used in a number of real-world development projects, one of which is described here.
18 CitationsSource
#1Dorit Nevo (York University)H-Index: 14
#2Michael Wade (York University)H-Index: 21
37 CitationsSource
#1Steven J. Bleistein (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 10
#2Karl Cox (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 17
Last. June M. VernerH-Index: 24
view all 3 authors...
Jackson problem diagrams, goal modeling, and business process modeling (BPM) are employed in a requirements engineering approach that captures both business strategy and process requirements for e-business systems. As a means of linking abstract, high-level business requirements to low-level system requirements, we leverage the paradigm of projection in both problem diagrams and goal models simultaneously. We use Jackson context diagram to describe the business model domain context while goal mo...
19 CitationsSource
#1A. van Lamsweerde (UCL: Université catholique de Louvain)H-Index: 37
The software industry is more than ever facing the challenge of delivering WYGIWYW software (What You Get Is What You Want). A well-structured document specifying adequate, complete, consistent, precise, and measurable requirements is a critical prerequisite for such software. Goals have been recognized to be among the driving forces for requirements elicitation, elaboration, organization, analysis, negotiation, documentation, and evolution. Growing experience with goal-oriented requirements eng...
185 CitationsSource
We show that, in today's world, a requirement without agility is just as bad as agility without requirements. We have discovered a consensus that systems analysis and requirements definition, in particular, have fallen on hard times. Ten or 15 years ago we taught people structured analysis, information engineering, data modeling, and working with computer-aided software engineering tools to turn those requirements into running programs. Rather than understanding the user's business and informati...
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#1Tim Kelly (Ebor: University of York)H-Index: 27
In Europe, over recent years, the responsibility for ensuring system safety has shifted onto the developers and operators to construct and present well reasoned arguments that their systems achieve acceptable levels of safety. These arguments (together with supporting evidence) are typically referred to as a “safety case”. This paper describes the role and purpose of a safety case. Safety arguments within safety cases are often poorly communicated. This paper presents a technique called GSN (Goa...
339 Citations
#1Jerzy Nawrocki (PUT: Poznań University of Technology)H-Index: 13
#2Michal Jasinski (PUT: Poznań University of Technology)H-Index: 4
Last. Adam Wojciechowski (PUT: Poznań University of Technology)H-Index: 10
view all 4 authors...
Extreme programming (XP) is an agile (lightweight) software development methodology and it becomes more and more popular. XP proposes many interesting practices, but it also has some weaknesses. From the software engineering point of view the most important issues are: maintenance problems resulting from very limited documentation (XP relies on code and test cases only), and lack of wider perspective of a system to be built. Moreover, XP assumes that there is only one customer representative. In...
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Cited By6
Newest
#1Woogon Shim (LG Electronics)H-Index: 1
#2Seok-Won Lee (Ajou University)H-Index: 13
Abstract Nowadays agile development has become a mainstream development methodology. Yet agile is still lacking in how in-depth it deals with Requirement Engineering (RE) compared to the other development stages. There have been attempts to apply agile RE techniques to traditional development and conversely to apply traditional RE techniques to agile development. But the biggest problem is that it is difficult to maintain the essence of agile which is to “collaborate”, “(iterative and frequent) ...
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#1Woogon ShimH-Index: 1
#2Seok-Won LeeH-Index: 13
Nowadays agile development has become a mainstream development methodology. Yet agile is still lacking in how in-depth it deals with Requirement Engineering (RE) compared to the other development stages. There have been attempts to apply agile RE techniques to traditional development and conversely to apply traditional RE techniques to agile development. But the biggest problem is that it is difficult to maintain the essence of agile which is to "collaborate", "(iterative and frequent) inspect a...
1 CitationsSource
#1Kenneth Duncan Boness (University of Reading)H-Index: 5
#2Rachel Harrison (Oxford Brookes University)H-Index: 21
This paper introduces a pragmatic and practical method for requirements modeling. The method is built using the concepts of our goal sketching technique together with techniques from an enterprise architecture modeling language. Our claim is that our method will help project managers who want to establish early control of their projects and will also give managers confidence in the scope of their project. In particular we propose the inclusion of assumptions as first class entities in the ArchiM...
3 CitationsSource
The combination between agile software engineering and distributed engineering is gaining a growing interest. Combining these however creates an interesting paradox. Where agile clearly states that documentation is not the most important thing, from the field of globally distributed engineering a higher focus on documentation is observed. In this thesis the field of requirements engineering is also taken into the mix. Combining these three a user-story model is defined to take advantage of the, ...
#1Kenneth Duncan Boness (University of Reading)H-Index: 5
#2Rachel Harrison (Oxford Brookes University)H-Index: 21
This paper describes how the business case can be characterized and used to quickly make an initial and structurally complete goal-responsibility model. This eases the task of bringing disciplined support to key decision makers in a development project in such a way that it can be instantiated quickly and thereafter support all key decisions. This process also greatly improves the understanding shared by the key decision makers and helps to identify and manage load- bearing assumptions. Recent r...
#1Kenneth Duncan Boness (University of Reading)H-Index: 5
#2Rachel HarrisonH-Index: 21
This paper describes how the business case can be characterized and used to quickly make an initial and structurally complete goal-responsibility model. This eases the problem of bringing disciplined support to key decision makers in a development project in such a way that it can be instantiated quickly and thereafter support all key decision gateways. This process also greatly improves the understanding shared by the key decision makers and helps to identify and manage load-bearing assumptions...
2 CitationsSource