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Effects of recent decreases in arctic sea ice on an ice-associated marine bird

Published on Aug 1, 2015in Progress in Oceanography 3.25
· DOI :10.1016/j.pocean.2015.05.010
George J. Divoky12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Paul M. Lukacs18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UM: University of Montana),
Matthew L. Druckenmiller3
Estimated H-index: 3
Cite
Abstract
Recent major reductions in summer arctic sea ice extent could be expected to be affecting the distributions and life histories of arctic marine biota adapted to living adjacent to sea ice. Of major concern are the effects of ice reductions, and associated increasing SST, on the most abundant forage fish in the Arctic, Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), the primary prey for the region’s upper trophic level marine predators. The black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) is an ice-obligate diving seabird specializing in feeding on Arctic cod and has been studied annually since 1975 at a breeding colony in the western Beaufort Sea. The data set is one of the few allowing assessment of the response of an upper trophic marine predator to recent decadal changes in the region’s cryosphere. Analysis of oceanographic conditions north of the colony from 1975 to 2012 for the annual period when parents provision young (mid-July to early September), found no major regime shifts in ice extent or SST until the late 1990s with major decreases in ice and increases in SST in the first decade of the 21st Century. We examined decadal variation in late summer oceanographic conditions, nestling diet and success, and overwinter adult survival, comparing a historical period (1975–1984) with a recent (2003–2012) one. In the historical period sea ice retreated an average of 1.8 km per day from 15 July to 1 September to an average distance of 95.8 km from the colony, while in the recent period ice retreat averaged 9.8 km per day to an average distance of 506.9 km for the same time period. SST adjacent to the island increased an average of 2.9 C between the two periods. While Arctic cod comprised over 95% of the prey provided to nestlings in the historical period, in the recent period 80% of the years had seasonal decreases, with Arctic cod decreasing to <5% of the nestling diet, and nearshore demersals, primarily sculpin (Cottidae), comprising the majority of the diet. A five-fold increase in the rate of nestling starvation and reductions in nestling growth and fledging mass were associated with the shift from Arctic cod. Annual adult survival during the nonbreeding season (September–May), showed no significant difference between the two periods, indicating no major change in availability of Arctic cod or other prey in the wintering area in the Bering Sea. Our findings of a substantial decrease in Arctic cod availability in late summer in response to decreased ice extent and increasing SST have implications for the entire Arctic given the ongoing and predicted basin-wide reductions in sea ice.
  • References (81)
  • Citations (27)
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References81
Newest
Published on Aug 1, 2015in Progress in Oceanography 3.25
Lois A. Harwood12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Fisheries and Oceans Canada),
T.G. Smith1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 3 AuthorsGeorge J. Divoky12
Estimated H-index: 12
Studies of the body condition of five marine vertebrate predators in the Beaufort Sea, conducted independently during the past 2–4 decades, suggest each has been affected by biophysical changes in the marine ecosystem. We summarize a temporal trend of increasing body condition in two species (bowhead whale subadults, Arctic char), in both cases influenced by the extent and persistence of annual sea ice. Three other species (ringed seal, beluga, black guillemot chicks), consumers with a dietary p...
Published on Aug 1, 2015in Progress in Oceanography 3.25
Muyin Wang24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UW: University of Washington),
James E. Overland55
Estimated H-index: 55
(NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
Abstract Global warming and continued reduction in sea ice cover will result in longer open water duration in the Arctic, which is important for the shipping industry, marine mammals, and other components of the regional ecosystem. In this study we assess the length of open water duration in the Alaskan Arctic over the next few decades using the set of latest coupled climate models (CMIP5). The Alaskan Arctic, including the Chukchi and the Beaufort Sea, has been a major region of summer sea ice ...
Published on Jan 1, 2015in Progress in Oceanography 3.25
William W. L. Cheung40
Estimated H-index: 40
(UBC: University of British Columbia),
Richard D. Brodeur9
Estimated H-index: 9
(NMFS: National Marine Fisheries Service)
+ 1 AuthorsDaniel Pauly89
Estimated H-index: 89
(UBC: University of British Columbia)
Marine life is being affected by changes in ocean conditions resulting from changes in climate and chemistry triggered by combustion of fossil fuels. Shifting spatial distributions of fish species is a major observed and predicted impact of these oceanographic changes, and such shifts may modify fish community structure considerably in particular locations and regions. We projected future range shifts of pelagic marine fishes of the Northeast Pacific shelf seas by 2050 relative to the present. W...
Published on Aug 1, 2014in Theoretical and Applied Climatology 2.72
Gerd Wendler25
Estimated H-index: 25
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks),
Liangbiao Chen5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks),
Blake Moore8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UAF: University of Alaska Fairbanks)
We analyzed the sea ice conditions in the Bering Sea for the time period 1979–2012, for which good data based on microwave satellite imagery, being able to look through clouds and darkness, are available. The Bering Sea, west of Alaska, is ice-free in summer, but each winter, an extensive sea ice cover is established, reaching its maximum normally in March. We found a slight increase in ice area over the time period, which is in stark contrast to the significant retreat observed in the Beaufort ...
Published on Mar 18, 2014in Arctic 1.43
R.T. Wilce1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Kenneth H. Dunton39
Estimated H-index: 39
We describe the benthic algal flora within the Boulder Patch, a unique and relatively isolated assemblage of cobbles and boulders in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, on the basis of a compilation of opportunistic in situ collections made from 1977 to 2006. The Boulder Patch is a shallow (4 - 7 m) High Arctic kelp community containing 78 benthic algal species, all of which represent approximately one-half of the pan-Arctic benthic flora (140 species) including one recognized cyanophyte (Calothrix scopul...
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Ibis 1.99
Helen B. Anderson4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Aberd.: University of Aberdeen),
Peter G.H. Evans11
Estimated H-index: 11
(Bangor University)
+ 2 AuthorsSarah Wanless59
Estimated H-index: 59
Local differences in feeding conditions have been suggested as a cause of regional variation in seabird demography but multi-colony comparisons of diet are rare. In UK waters the main fish eaten by seabirds during the breeding season belong to three families: Ammodytidae, Clupeidae and Gadidae. Climate change and fishing are affecting these fish stocks and so probably impact on predators such as seabirds. We used standardized observations of prey brought in for chicks to make the first integrate...
Published on Nov 1, 2013in Marine Biology 2.13
Jordan K Matley3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UM: University of Manitoba),
Aaron T. Fisk13
Estimated H-index: 13
(U of W: University of Windsor),
Terry A. Dick5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UM: University of Manitoba)
Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) is a schooling fish providing a critical link between lower and upper trophic levels in the Arctic. This study examined foraging of Arctic cod collected from Allen Bay, Cornwallis Island, Canada (~75 N 95 W), during summer 2010 using temporal indicators of diet including stomach content, and carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes of liver and muscle. Foraging at the time of capture reflected sympagic and epi-benthic habitats indicated by the prevalence of...
Published on Nov 1, 2013in Journal of Marine Systems 2.54
Wojciech Walkusz22
Estimated H-index: 22
(PAN: Polish Academy of Sciences),
Andrew Majewski8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Fisheries and Oceans Canada),
James D. Reist31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Fisheries and Oceans Canada)
Abstract Distribution and diet of bottom-dwelling Arctic cod were studied in the nearshore Canadian Beaufort Sea in summer of 2006–2009 using a 3 m benthic beam trawl. In total, 82 stations were visited ranging in depth from 8 to 128 m. Fish densities were generally low for benthic habitats; pelagic fish occurrence was not assessed. We observed a gradual increase in both the biomass of daily food rations and their energetic content over fish age. Overall, fish were able to obtain high food ratio...
Published on Nov 1, 2013in Bird Study 1.01
Elizabeth A. Masden11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of the Highlands and Islands),
Simon Foster4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Scottish Natural Heritage),
Angus C. Jackson4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of the Highlands and Islands)
Capsule Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle were recorded diving in the Pentland Firth to an average depth of 32 metres and an overall maximal depth of 43 metres. The majority (88%) of dives were benthic with a median dive duration of 95 seconds, and a maximal dive duration of 131 seconds. The results provide empirical evidence that Black Guillemots use depths within the water column at which tidal turbines are likely to operate. Although limited, our data suggest the potential for interactions betw...
Published on Nov 1, 2013in Marine Biology Research 1.29
Haakon Hop44
Estimated H-index: 44
(NPI: Norwegian Polar Institute),
Harald Gjøsæter25
Estimated H-index: 25
Abstract Polar cod and capelin are key species in Arctic and sub-Arctic marine food webs, respectively, and the objective of this study is to compare and contrast the two species. Their distributions are dependent on water masses, with polar cod being associated with cold, sub-zero Arctic water, whereas capelin is distributed further south into Atlantic water masses. The distribution of polar cod is more static than that of capelin, whose distribution extends further north in warm years and fluc...
Cited By27
Newest
Published on Jan 31, 2019in Scientific Reports 4.01
Françoise Amélineau6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Montpellier),
David Grémillet46
Estimated H-index: 46
(University of Montpellier)
+ 3 AuthorsJérôme Fort18
Estimated H-index: 18
(University of La Rochelle)
Ongoing global changes apply drastic environmental forcing onto Arctic marine ecosystems, particularly through ocean warming, sea-ice shrinkage and enhanced pollution. To test impacts on arctic marine ecological functioning, we used a 12-year integrative study of little auks (Alle alle), the most abundant seabird in the Atlantic Arctic. We monitored the foraging ecology, reproduction, survival and body condition of breeding birds, and we tested linkages between these biological variables and a s...
Published in Marine Policy 2.87
Travis C. Tai2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UBC: University of British Columbia),
Nadja Steiner11
Estimated H-index: 11
+ -3 AuthorsU. Rashid Sumaila29
Estimated H-index: 29
(UBC: University of British Columbia)
Abstract The Arctic remains one of the most pristine marine regions in the world, however climate change and increasing favourable conditions is triggering increasing exploration and development of commercial fisheries. Canada's Arctic marine capture fisheries are currently small relative to fisheries in other regions in Canada but small scale, predominantly Inuit fisheries are more wide spread. In this study, catch data was first used to estimate the current state of Arctic marine fisheries. Ne...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Environmental Pollution 5.71
Norith Eckbo2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Oslo),
Céline Le Bohec6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UDS: University of Strasbourg)
+ 7 AuthorsKatrine Borgå29
Estimated H-index: 29
(University of Oslo)
Abstract While migratory seabirds dominate ecotoxicological studies within the Arctic, there is limited knowledge about exposure and potential effects from circulating legacy and emerging contaminants in species who reside in the high-Arctic all year round. Here, we focus on the case of the Mandt's Black guillemot ( Cepphus grylle mandtii ) breeding at Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (79.00°N, 11.66°E) and investigate exposure to legacy and emerging contaminants in relation to individual physiological st...
Published on May 30, 2019in Ecology and Evolution 2.42
Isabeau Pratte2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Acadia University),
Birgit M. Braune34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Carleton University)
+ 1 AuthorsMark L. Mallory18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Acadia University)
Published on May 1, 2019in Global Change Biology 8.88
Sarah K. Thomsen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(SFU: Simon Fraser University),
David J. Green20
Estimated H-index: 20
(SFU: Simon Fraser University)
Published on Apr 11, 2019in Polar Biology 2.00
Adam Spear1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration),
Janet T. Duffy-Anderson14
Estimated H-index: 14
(NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
+ 3 AuthorsPhyllis J. Stabeno44
Estimated H-index: 44
(NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
The physical environments of high-latitude systems are rapidly changing. For example, the Chukchi Sea has experienced increased water temperatures, advection from the Bering Sea, declines in sea-ice concentration, earlier spring ice retreat, and delayed fall ice formation. This physical restructuring is expected to impact ecosystem structure and function. In this study, a series of bio-oceanographic research surveys were conducted in the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 to characterize the physic...
Published on Apr 10, 2019in Frontiers in Marine Science
Nadja Steiner11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
William W. L. Cheung40
Estimated H-index: 40
+ 9 AuthorsPaul Suprenand
This study synthesizes results from observations, laboratory experiments and models to showcase how the integration of scientific methods and indigenous knowledge can improve our understanding of a) past and projected changes in environmental conditions and marine species; b) their effects on social and ecological systems in the respective communities; and c) management and planning tools for climate change adaptation and mitigation. The study links climate-ecosystem-economic (CEE) models and di...
Sue E. Moore36
Estimated H-index: 36
(NMFS: National Marine Fisheries Service),
Kathy J. Kuletz11
Estimated H-index: 11
(FWS: United States Fish and Wildlife Service)
Abstract Marine birds and mammals can act as sentinels to shifts in ocean ecosystems, due to their (i) reliance on finding aggregated prey for efficient foraging, (ii) need to respond to biophysical signals in support of successful seasonal migrations, and (iii) capacity to reflect changes in marine food webs. Here we present an abbreviated review of recent published accounts of marine bird and mammal responses to biophysical features of the ocean ecosystem in and near sampling regions of the Di...
Karina E. Giesbrecht6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UVic: University of Victoria),
Diana E. Varela17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UVic: University of Victoria)
+ 3 AuthorsJ.E. Long (UVic: University of Victoria)
Abstract We present phytoplankton and nutrient observations from a period of ten years within five biological ‘hotspots’ in the Bering and Chukchi Seas, as identified by the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO). Nitrate (NO 3 - ) and total and size-fractionated ( 5 µm) chlorophyll a (Chl a ) concentrations, and rates of carbon ( ρ C, ‘primary productivity’) and NO 3 - utilization ( ρ NO 3 ) were measured throughout the euphotic zone during eight cruises in July 2006, 2008 and yearly from 201...