Identification and characterization of two bacteriocin-producing bacteria isolated from garlic and ginger root.
Two bacteriocin-producing bacterial strains were isolated from garlic and ginger root by the agar overlay method. The bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analyses and fermentation patterns as Leuconostoc mesenteroides (garlic isolate) and Lactococcus lactis (ginger isolate). The bacteriocins were assigned the names leucocin BC2 and lactocin GI3, respectively. Physiochemical properties and antimicrobial spectra of the bacteriocins were determined by the spot-on-lawn method. Both bacteriocins were inhibited by proteolytic enzymes. Leucocin BC2 exhibited a narrow antimicrobial spectrum, inhibiting only Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Listeria species. Lactocin GI3 had a broader spectrum, inhibiting Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria, Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Staphylococcus species. Both bacteriocins remained active when heated at 90 degrees C for 15 min or 120 degrees C for 20 min. Leucocin BC2 assayed at 37 degrees C showed an inhibitory activity of 1,600 AU/ml, whereas at 8 degrees C the activity was 12,800 AU/ml. Conversely, lactocin GI3 activity was the same at both assay temperatures. Both bacteriocins remained active over a pH range of 2.0 to 9.0 and in various organic solvents. The activity of leucocin BC2 was increased when treated with 0.5% acetic acid and 0.5% lactic acid, whereas lactocin GI3 activity was decreased with either acid. The molecular mass values were 3.7 kDa for leucocin BC2 and 3.9 kDa for lactocin GI3. These results show that the inhibitory substances produced by the bacteria isolated from garlic and ginger are bacteriocins that appear to be different in some characteristics from previously reported bacteriocins.