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Perspectives given by structural connectivity bridge the gap between structure and function.

Published on May 15, 2020in Brain Structure & Function3.622
· DOI :10.1007/S00429-020-02080-Z
Hiromasa Takemura8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
Michel Thiebaut de Schotten36
Estimated H-index: 36
Abstract
  • References (41)
  • Citations (0)
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References41
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Axon diameter and density are important microstructural metrics that offer valuable insight into the structural organization of white matter throughout the human brain. We report the systematic acquisition and analysis of a comprehensive diffusion MRI data set acquired with 300 mT/m maximum gradient strength in a cohort of 20 healthy human subjects that yields distinct and consistent patterns of axon diameter index in white matter tracts of arbitrary orientation. We use a straightforward, previo...
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Making reasonable decisions related to financial and health scenarios is a crucial capacity that can be difficult for older adults to maintain as they age, yet few studies examine neurocognitive factors that are generalizable to different types of everyday decision-making capacity. Here we propose an innovative approach, based on individual risk-taking preference, to identify neural profiles that may help predict older adults’ everyday decision-making capacity. Using performance and cognitive ar...
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Mental health problems often emerge in adolescence and are associated with reduced gray matter thickness or volume in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and limbic system and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD) of white matter linking these regions. However, few studies have investigated whether internalizing and externalizing behavior are associated with brain structure in children and adolescents without mental health disorders, which is important for understanding ...
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Aggression after military deployment is a common occurrence in veterans. Neurobiological research has shown that aggression is associated with a dysfunction in a network connecting brain regions implicated in threat processing and emotion regulation. However, aggression may also be related to deficits in networks underlying communication and social cognition. The uncinate and arcuate fasciculi are integral to these networks, thus studying potential abnormalities in these white matter connections...
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The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical feedback loops that consist of distinct white matter pathways are important for understanding in vivo imaging studies of functional and anatomical connectivity, and for localizing subthalamic white matter structures in surgical approaches for movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Connectomic analysis in animals has identified fiber connections between the basal ganglia and thalamus, which pass through the fields of Forel, where other fiber pa...
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The structure of the human brain has been studied extensively. Despite all the knowledge accrued, direct information about connections, from origin to termination, in the human brain is extremely limited. Yet there is a widespread misperception that human connectional neuroanatomy is well-established and validated. In this article, we consider what is known directly about human structural and connectional neuroanatomy. Information on neuroanatomical connections in the human brain is in fact deri...
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The primate brain contains a large number of interconnected visual areas, whose spatial organization and intracortical projections show a high level of conservation across species. One fiber pathway of recent interest is the vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), which is thought to support communication between dorsal and ventral visual areas in the occipital lobe. A recent comparative diffusion MRI (dMRI) study reported that the VOF in the macaque brain bears a similar topology to that of the hu...
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Primary brain tumors are notoriously hard to resect surgically. Due to their infiltrative nature, finding the optimal resection boundary without damaging healthy tissue can be challenging. One potential tool to help make this decision is diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) tractography. dMRI exploits the diffusion of water molecule along axons to generate a 3D modelization of the white matter bundles in the brain. This feature is particularly useful to visualize how a tumor affe...
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To establish the link between structure and function of any large area of the neocortex, it is helpful to identify its principles of organisation. One way to establish such principles is to investigate how differences in whole-brain connectivity are structured across the area. Here, we use Laplacian eigenmaps on diffusion MRI tractography data to investigate the organisational principles of the human temporal association cortex. We identify three overlapping gradients of connectivity that are, f...
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