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First Speleothem Evidence of the Hiera Eruption (197 BC), Santorini, Greece

Published on May 12, 2020in Environmental Archaeology1.317
· DOI :10.1080/14614103.2020.1755196
Katerina Theodorakopoulou2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UTH: University of Thessaly),
Konstantinos Kyriakopoulos9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)
+ 7 AuthorsAndreas Darlas
Abstract
Speleothems are useful in detecting past geoenvironmental events. Variations in trace element concentrations may constitute a diagnostic of volcanic eruptions, enabling both dating and environmenta...
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  • Citations (0)
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The mid-second millennium BCE eruption of Thera (Santorini) offers a critically important marker horizon to synchronize archaeological chronologies of the Aegean, Egypt, and the Near East and to anchor paleoenvironmental records from ice cores, speleothems, and lake sediments. Precise and accurate dating for the event has been the subject of many decades of research. Using calendar-dated tree rings, we created an annual resolution radiocarbon time series 1700–1500 BCE to validate, improve, or mo...
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During the Late Bronze Age, the island of Santorini had a semi-closed caldera harbour inherited from the 22 ka Cape Riva Plinian eruption, and a central island referred to as ‘Pre-Kameni’ after the present-day Kameni Islands. Here, the size and age of the intracaldera island prior to the Late Bronze Age (Minoan) eruption are constrained using a photo-statistical method, complemented by granulometry and high-precision K-Ar dating. Furthermore, the topography of Late Bronze Age Santorini is recons...
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Abstract We present new distal records of tephra deposits that overly the Kos ignimbrite in seven locations of Datca peninsula. Tephra in one of these locations were previously associated with Nisyros Kyra sub-unit based only on the field characteristics. We use different proxies such as field observations, petrography, mineral, glass, and whole-rock chemistry in order to characterize and correlate the previously and recently identified pumice fall deposits on Datca. The total thickness of the f...
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Volcanic eruptions provide tests of human and natural system sensitivity to abrupt shocks because their repeated occurrence allows the identification of systematic relationships in the presence of random variability. Here we show a suppression of Nile summer flooding via the radiative and dynamical impacts of explosive volcanism on the African monsoon, using climate model output, ice-core-based volcanic forcing data, Nilometer measurements, and ancient Egyptian writings. We then examine the resp...
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The Bronze Age eruption of Santorini is known to have generated tsunamis with caldera collapse as the likely mechanism. However, new bathymetric and seismic data presented by Nomikou et al. show that the entry of pyroclastic flows into the sea is the most likely tsunami-generating mechanism at Santorini.
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Forest biomass has the potential to significantly impact the chemistry and volume of diffuse recharge to cave dripwater via the processes of nutrient uptake, transpiration and forest fire. Yet to-date, this role has been under-appreciated in the interpretation of speleothem trace element records from forested catchments. In this study, the impact of vegetation is examined and quantified in a long-term monitoring program from Golgotha Cave, SW Australia. The contribution of salts from rain and dr...
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The processes of initiation and development of characteristic surface karst landforms and underground caves are nearly all chemical processes. This paper reviews the advances in understanding of karst chemistry over the past 60 years. The equilibrium chemistry of carbonate and sulfate dissolution and deposition is well established with accurate values for the necessary constants. The equations for bulk kinetics are known well enough for accurate modeling of speleogenetic processes but much is be...
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#1Andrea Borsato (University of Newcastle)H-Index: 28
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Sulphate concentrations in speleothems identify major volcanic eruptions, provide useful information on soil and aquifer dynamics and, in similar fashion to the 14C bomb peak, its Anthropocene peak can be used to date recent cave formations. However, the transmission of S from the atmosphere to cave dripwater and its incorporation in speleothems is subjected to biogeochemical cycling and accurate studies of each cave site are needed in order to assess how the S atmospheric signal is modified and...
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#1Robert A. Jamieson (Durham University)H-Index: 6
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Large multivariate trace element datasets produced by LA-ICP-MS speleothem analysis can pose difficulties for analysis and interpretation. Processes acting on various timescales and magnitudes affect trace element concentrations, and deconvolving the most important controls is often complex. Here Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to identify the modes and timings of variation which best explain the overall variability in an exceptionally high-resolution (10 μm vertical resolution) mu...
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#1Fernando Gázquez (UAL: University of Almería)H-Index: 7
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Speleothems are usually composed of thin layers of calcite (or aragonite). However, cemented detrital materials interlayered between laminae of speleothemic carbonate have been also observed in many caves. Flowstones comprising discontinuous carbonate layers form due to flowing water films, while flood events introduce fluviokarstic sediments in caves that, on occasion, are recorded as clayey layers inside flowstones and stalagmites. This record provides a potential means of understanding the fr...
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