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Photosynthetic Reduction of Xylose to Xylitol Using Cyanobacteria.

Published on May 10, 2020in Biotechnology Journal3.543
· DOI :10.1002/BIOT.201900354
Eric S. Fan1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NTHU: National Tsing Hua University),
Ken W. Lu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NTHU: National Tsing Hua University)
+ 1 AuthorsClaire R. Shen13
Estimated H-index: 13
(NTHU: National Tsing Hua University)
Abstract
Photosynthetic generation of reducing power makes cyanobacteria an attractive host for biochemical reduction compared to cell-free and heterotrophic systems, which require burning of additional resources for the supply of reducing equivalent. Here, using xylitol synthesis as an example, we demonstrated efficient uptake and reduction of xylose photoautotrophically in Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 upon introduction of an effective xylose transporter from Escherichia coli (Ec-XylE) and the NADPH-dependent xylose reductase from Candida boidinii (Cb-XR). Simultaneous activation of xylose uptake and matching of cofactor specificity enabled an average xylitol yield of 0.9 g/g xylose and a maximum productivity of about 0.15 g/L/d/OD with increased level of xylose supply. While long-term cellular maintenance still appeared challenging, high-density conversion of xylose to xylitol using concentrated resting cell further pushed the titer of xylitol formation to 33 g/L in six days with 85% of maximum theoretical yield. While our results showed that the unknown dissipation of xylose can be minimized when coupled to a strong reaction outlet, it remained to be the major hurdle hampering the yield despite the reported inability of cyanobacteria to metabolize xylose. With xylitol productivity increasing linearly with the concentration of cyanobacterial biocatalysts, this study suggests that photosynthetic supply of NADPH is sufficient for one-step biochemical reduction even under limited light penetration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • References (36)
  • Citations (1)
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References36
Newest
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Last. Andreas Schmid (Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ)H-Index: 59
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: Oxygenase-containing cyanobacteria constitute promising whole-cell biocatalysts for oxyfunctionalization reactions. Photosynthetic water oxidation thereby delivers the required cosubstrates, that is activated reduction equivalents and O2 , sustainably. A recombinant Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 strain showing unprecedentedly high photosynthesis-driven oxyfunctionalization activities is developed, and its technical applicability is evaluated. The cells functionally synthesize a heterologous cytoc...
2 CitationsSource
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: Cyanobacteria are of great importance to Earth's ecology. Due to their capability in photosynthesis and C1 metabolism, they are ideal microbial chassis that can be engineered for direct conversion of carbon dioxide and solar energy into biofuels and biochemicals. Facilitated by the elucidation of the basic biology of the photoautotrophic microbes and rapid advances in synthetic biology, genetic toolkits have been developed to enable implementation of nonnatural functionalities in engineered cy...
3 CitationsSource
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2 CitationsSource
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Abstract Using engineered photoautotrophic microorganisms for the direct chemical synthesis from CO2 is an attractive direction for both sustainability and CO2 mitigation. However, the behaviors of non-native metabolic pathways may be difficult to control due to the different intracellular contexts between natural and heterologous hosts. While most metabolic engineering efforts focus on strengthening driving forces in pathway design to favor biochemical production in these organisms, excessive d...
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Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydroge...
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Increasing photosynthetic efficiency is crucial to increasing biomass production to meet the growing demands for food and energy. Previous theoretical arithmetic analysis suggests that the light reactions and dark reactions are imperfectly coupled due to shortage of ATP supply, or accumulation of NADPH. Here we hypothesized that solely increasing NADPH consumption might improve the coupling of light reactions and dark reactions, thereby increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass produc...
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It is important to obtain abundant sugar feedstocks economically and sustainably for bio-fermentation industry, especially for producing cheap biofuels and biochemicals. Besides plant biomass, photosynthetic cyanobacteria have also been considered to be potential microbe candidates for sustainable production of carbohydrate feedstocks. As the fastest growing cyanobacterium reported so far, Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 (Syn2973) might have huge potential for bioproduction. In this study, we ...
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Production of chemicals directly from carbon dioxide using light energy is an attractive option for a sustainable future. The 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) production directly from carbon dioxide was achieved by engineered Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 with a synthetic metabolic pathway. Glycerol dehydratase catalyzing the conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde in a coenzyme B12-dependent manner worked in S. elongatus PCC 7942 without addition of vitamin B12, suggesting that the intri...
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Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of produci...
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Xylitol, a natural sweetener, can be produced by hydrogenation of xylose in hemicelluloses. In microbial processes, utilization of only NADPH cofactor limited commercialization of xylitol biosynthesis. To overcome this drawback, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 was engineered to express two types of xylose reductase (XR) with either NADPH-dependence or NADH-preference. Engineered S. cerevisiae DWM expressing both the XRs exhibited higher xylitol productivity than the yeast strain expressing NADPH...
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