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Collision risk measure for triggering evasive actions of maritime autonomous surface ships

Published on Jul 1, 2020in Safety Science3.619
· DOI :10.1016/J.SSCI.2020.104708
Yamin Huang6
Estimated H-index: 6
(TU Delft: Delft University of Technology),
P.H.A.J.M. van Gelder22
Estimated H-index: 22
(TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)
Abstract
Abstract Collision risk assessment is essential for supporting collision avoidance, which is the core of various collision alert/avoidance systems. One main task of the systems is setting off alarms for taking evasive actions. The alarms need to be triggered before the conflict has no collision-free solution. However, most of existing collision risk measures are independent of conflict resolution. That means the collision alert does not indicate that the collision is avoidable or not. This article proposes an improved time-varying collision risk (TCR) measure, bringing in a new measure. The measurement of TCR reflects not only the dangerous level of the approaching ships but also the difficulty of avoiding collisions. By comparing with traditional measures, e.g., Collision Risk Index (CRI), we found that (1) the TCR can distinguish changes of risk that have identical CRI level, (2) the TCR measure offers a reasonable tool to evaluate the collision risk of entire traffic, and (3) it reflects the influence of maneuverability improvement on collision risk. Based on those results, this article reaches two conclusions: the collision risk is monotonically increasing when introducing more ships, and ignorance of ship maneuverability results in an underestimation of collision risk.
  • References (64)
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References64
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#1Lei Du (Aalto University)H-Index: 1
#2Floris Goerlandt (Dal: Dalhousie University)H-Index: 23
Last. Pentti Kujala (Aalto University)H-Index: 29
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Abstract The lack of situational awareness is a major cause of ship collisions. Thus, enhancing the situational awareness of the stand-on ship is a key for navigational safety, where the intention estimation of the give-way ship is crucial. According to COLREGs, the stand-on ship is not allowed to take evasive actions until the give-way ship does not take proper actions timely. The stage that needs the stand-on ship to take actions plays as the second protective layer for the ship, which is name...
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: We propose an innovative time-varying collision risk (TCR) measurement for ship collision prevention in this article. The proposed measurement considers the level of danger of the approaching ships and the capability of a ship to prevent collisions. We define the TCR as the probability of the overlap of ships' positions in the future, given the uncertainty of maneuvers. Two sets are identified: (1) the velocity obstacle set as the maneuvers of the own ship that lead to collisions with target s...
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#1Yamin Huang (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 6
#2Linying Chen (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 5
Last. P.H.A.J.M. van Gelder (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 22
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Abstract Collision prevention is critical for navigation safety at sea. At early ages, researchers aimed at developing navigational assistance systems for enhancing situational awareness of human operators as human is at the core of collision avoidance. Recently, autonomous vehicles have gained a remarkable amount of attention with a focus on solving collision problems by machines. This results in two groups of studies, both working on preventing collisions but with different focuses: one aims a...
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Abstract The increasing attention to the improvement of navigational safety and autonomous navigation has led to the emergence of various tools and methods for collision risk assessment in ship navigation. An extensive systematic literature review has been carried out in this paper. It focuses on the parameters and methods of individual collision risk assessment providing input for navigational safety and autonomous navigation. We thoroughly assessed and analysed a number of papers on this topic...
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Collision avoidance protocols such as COLREGS are written primarily for human operators resulting in a rule set that is open to some interpretation, difficult to quantify, and challenging to evaluate. Increasing use of autonomous control of vehicles emphasizes the need to more uniformly establish entry and exit criteria for collision avoidance rules, adopt a means to quantitatively evaluate performance, and establish a “road test” for autonomous marine vehicle collision avoidance. This paper pre...
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#1Yamin Huang (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 6
#2Linying Chen (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 5
Last. P.H.A.J.M. van Gelder (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 22
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Abstract Numerous methods have been developed for ship collision prevention over the past decades. However, most studies are based on strong assumptions, such as the need for a constant velocity of the target-ship, the limitation to two-ship scenarios, the simplification of ships' dynamics, etc. Generalized Velocity Obstacle (GVO) algorithm can bridge these gaps. This paper presents a GVO algorithm for ship collision avoidance and designs a collision avoidance system (GVO-CAS). The proposed syst...
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Abstract Ship domain is often used in marine navigation and marine traffic engineering as a safety condition. The basic idea behind those applications is that an encounter of two or more ships can be considered safe if neither of ship domains is intruded by other ships. Research utilising this approach has been documented in numerous works, including publications on optimising collision avoidance manoeuvres performed to fulfil domain-based safety conditions. However, up to this point there has b...
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