The Effects of Cannabis Use: A Test Among Dual Electronic and Combustible Cigarette Users.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite greater rates of cannabis use among those that smoke combustible cigarettes, it is currently unknown whether cannabis use is related to e-cigarette dependence or maladaptive beliefs about combustible cigarettes. Therefore, the current study sought to identify whether adult dual users of combustible and e-cigarettes (ie, dual users) who also used cannabis differed from dual users who did not use cannabis on e-cigarette dependence severity, perceived barriers to quitting, and perception of risks and of benefits of e-cigarettes. METHODS: Participants were 414 current dual users (48.3% female, Mage = 35.1 years, SD = 10.0), 51% of whom were current cannabis users. RESULTS: Dual users who reported current cannabis use evidenced more severe dependence on e-cigarettes (etap (2) = 0.12), higher perceived barriers for quitting e-cigarettes (etap (2) = 0.06), and greater perceived benefits (etap (2) = 0.03) as well as higher perception of risks (etap (2) = 0.03) for using e-cigarettes. The results were evident after controlling for the variance associated with sex, age, education, income, and frequency of e-cigarette use. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the current findings suggest cannabis may be an important type of substance use behavior that is relevant to e-cigarette dependence and beliefs about use and quitting among adult dual users. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The present data extend current understanding of dual users by contextualizing cannabis use within e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use behaviors and highlight a potential substance use behavior that may be targetable in the framework of nicotine cessation. (Am J Addict 2020;00:00-00).