Initial validation of a patient-reported measure of compassion: Determining the content validity and clinical sensibility among patients living with a life-limiting and incurable illness
Published on Jan 22, 2020in The Patient: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research2.673
· DOI :10.1007/s40271-020-00409-8
Although compassionate care is considered a cornerstone of quality palliative care, there is a paucity of valid and reliable measures to study, assess, and evaluate how patients experience compassion/compassionate care in their care. The aim was to develop a patient-reported compassion measure for use in research and clinical practice with established content-related validity evidence for the items, question stems, and response scale. Content validation for an initial 109 items was conducted through a two-round modified Delphi technique, followed by cognitive interviews with patients. A panel of international Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) and a Patient Advisory Group (PAG) assessed the items for their relevancy to their associated domain of compassion, yielding an Item-level Content Validity Index (I-CVI), which was used to determine content modifications. The SMEs and the PAG also provided narrative feedback on the clarity, flow, and wording of the instructions, questions, and response scale, with items being modified accordingly. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 16 patients to further assess the clarity, comprehensibility, and readability of each item within the revised item pool. The first round of the Delphi review produced an overall CVI of 72% among SMEs and 80% among the PAG for the 109 items. Delphi panelists then reviewed a revised measure containing 84 items, generating an overall CVI of 84% for SMEs and 86% for the PAG. Sixty-eight items underwent further testing via cognitive interviews with patients, resulting in an additional 14 items being removed. Having established this initial validity evidence, further testing to assess internal consistency, test–retest reliability, factor structure, and relationships to other variables is required to produce the first valid, reliable, and clinically informed patient-reported measure of compassion.