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Phytochemicals and Gastrointestinal Cancer: Cellular Mechanisms and Effects to Change Cancer Progression

Published on Jan 8, 2020
· DOI :10.3390/BIOM10010105
Raghad Khalid AL-Ishaq2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Qatar Foundation),
Anthony J. Overy1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Qatar Foundation),
Dietrich Büsselberg33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Qatar Foundation)
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Abstract
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is a prevailing global health disease with a high incidence rate which varies by region. It is a huge economic burden on health care providers. GI cancer affects different organs in the body such as the gastric organs, colon, esophagus, intestine, and pancreas. Internal and external factors like smoking, obesity, urbanization, genetic mutations, and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viral infections could increase the risk of GI cancer. Phytochemicals are non-nutritive bioactive secondary compounds abundantly found in fruits, grains, and vegetables. Consumption of phytochemicals may protect against chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. Multiple studies have assessed the chemoprotective effect of selected phytochemicals in GI cancer, offering support to their potential towards reducing the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge addressing the anti-cancerous effects of selected dietary phytochemicals on GI cancer and their molecular activities on selected mechanisms, i.e., nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), detoxification enzymes, adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), wingless-related integration site/β-catenin (wingless-related integration site (Wnt) β-catenin, cell apoptosis, phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/ protein kinase B AKT/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In this review phytochemicals were classified into four main categories: (i) carotenoids, including lutein, lycopene, and β-carotene; (ii) proanthocyanidins, including quercetin and ellagic acid; (iii) organosulfur compounds, including allicin, allyl propyl disulphide, asparagusic acid, and sulforaphane; and (iv) other phytochemicals including pectin, curcumins, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Overall, phytochemicals improve cancer prognosis through the downregulation of β-catenin phosphorylation, therefore enhancing apoptosis, and upregulation of the AMPK pathway, which supports cellular homeostasis. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cancer treatment using phytochemicals and possible side effects associated with this approach.
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References224
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#1Afsane Bahrami (Birjand University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 18
#2Muhammed MajeedH-Index: 6
Last. Amirhossein Sahebkar (MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 68
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#1Gisela Ibáñez-Redín (USP: University of São Paulo)H-Index: 4
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the top three cancer with higher incident and mortality rate worldwide. It is estimated that about over than 1.1 million of death and 2.2 million new cases by the year 2030. The current treatment modalities with the usage of chemo drugs such as FOLFOX and FOLFIRI, surgery and radiotherapy, which are usually accompanied with major side effects, are rarely cured along with poor survival rate and at higher recurrence outcome. This trigger the needs of exploring new ...
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer, but despite advances in treatment, it remains the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Prevention may, therefore, be a key strategy in reducing colorectal cancer deaths. Given reports of an inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption with colorectal cancer risk, there has been significant interest in understanding the metabolism and bioactivity of flavonoids, which are highly abundant in fruits and vegetabl...
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#1Nabarun Roy (Kerala Agricultural University)H-Index: 3
#2P. A. Nazeem (Kerala Agricultural University)H-Index: 6
Last. Achuthan C. Raghavamenon (University of Calicut)H-Index: 6
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Colorectal cancer is one among the most common cancers in the world and a major cause of cancer related deaths. Similar to other cancers, colorectal carcinogenesis is often associated with over expression of genes related to cell growth and proliferation, especially Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). There is an increasing attention towards the plant derived compounds in prevention of colorectal carcinogenesis by downregulating EGFR. Among plants, garlic (Allium sativum L.) is emerging wit...
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#1Xian Wu (UMass: University of Massachusetts Amherst)H-Index: 13
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SCOPE: There are growing interests in using a whole-food-based approach to prevent chronic diseases due to potential synergistic interactions among different bioactive components within the whole foods. North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), a polyphenol-rich fruit, has been shown to exert multiple beneficial health effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: For the first time, the protective effects of whole cranberry powder (WCP) are determined against colitis-associated mouse colon tumorigenesi...
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This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer...
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: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world. Many efforts have focused on finding natural molecules with potential chemo-preventive activity due to their low toxicity compared to synthetic drugs. However, comprehensive information on the bioactive fractions and components is still missing. In this study, we developed a method for the quantitative separation and isolation of saponins from asparagus genotypes consisting of an adsorption chromatography and subsequent liquid chr...
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