Anti-adipogenic Effect of β-Carboline Alkaloids from Garlic (Allium sativum).
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is utilized worldwide for culinary and medicinal use and has diverse health benefits. As part of our ongoing research to identify bioactive components from natural resources, phytochemical analysis of the methanolic extract of garlic led to the isolation and characterization of six compounds: Three eugenol diglycosides (1–3) and three β-carboline alkaloids (4–6). In particular, the absolute configurations of β-carboline alkaloids (5 and 6) were established by gauge-including atomic orbital nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift calculations, followed by DP4+ analysis. Here, we evaluated the effects of compounds 1–6 on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was evaluated using Oil Red O staining; the expression of adipogenic genes was detected using RT-qPCR. Among compounds 1–6, (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (6) inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte adipogenesis and reduced the expression of adipogenic genes (Fabp4, PPARγ, C/EBPβ, Adipsin, and Adipoq). Moreover, it markedly decreased the actylation of α-tubulin, which is crucial for cytoskeletal remodeling during adipogenesis. Anti-adipogenic effects were observed upon treatment with compound 6, not only during the entire process, but also on the first two days of adipogenesis. Additionally, treatment with compound 6 regulated the expression of genes involved in adipocyte lipid metabolism, decreasing the lipogenic gene (SREBP1) and increasing lipolytic genes (ATGL and HSL). We provide experimental evidence of the health benefits of using (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid obtained from garlic to prevent excessive adipogenesis in obesity.