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Practical Resistance of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Cry1F Bacillus thuringiensis maize discovered in Nova Scotia, Canada

Published on Dec 3, 2019in Scientific Reports4.011
· DOI :10.1038/s41598-019-54263-2
Jocelyn L Smith6
Estimated H-index: 6
(U of G: University of Guelph),
Yasmine Farhan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(U of G: University of Guelph),
Arthur W. Schaafsma25
Estimated H-index: 25
(U of G: University of Guelph)
Abstract
Transgenic maize, Zea mays L., modified to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, was introduced in 1996 to control Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key maize pest in North America. The high-dose/refuge concept, developed to delay or prevent resistance evolution to this technology, has been exemplified by O. nubilalis as no cases of practical resistance were identified in >20 years. This study documents the first case of practical resistance to Cry1F Bt maize by O. nubilalis in North America. Four collections of O. nubilalis were made from Cry1F maize in Nova Scotia, Canada with unexpected injury (UXI) ranging from 30–70%. Greater survival of UXI collections was observed when larvae were exposed to the highest concentration of 200 ng Cry1F cm−2 in diet-overlay bioassays compared to susceptible laboratory colonies. Larvae also fed and survived on Cry1F leaf tissue in 7 d bioassays. A collection from non-Bt maize, 120 km west of the UXI region, also survived 200 ng Cry1F cm−2, but was susceptible to Cry1F leaf tissue. Detection of Cry1F-resistant O. nubilalis in what might be considered an insignificant maize-growing region indicates that a number of preventable causal factors may have been related to inadequate stewardship of Bt maize technology.
  • References (29)
  • Citations (1)
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References29
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#1Bruce E. Tabashnik (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 73
#2Yves Carrière (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 50
4 CitationsSource
#1Galen DivelyBrian (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 35
#2P. Dilip Venugopal (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 10
Last. William D Hutchison (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 33
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Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976–2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decrea...
32 CitationsSource
#1Jocelyn L Smith (U of G: University of Guelph)H-Index: 6
#2M D Lepping (Dow AgroSciences)H-Index: 1
Last. A. W. Schaafsma (U of G: University of Guelph)H-Index: 8
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15 CitationsSource
#1Dalton C. Ludwick (MU: University of Missouri)H-Index: 3
#2Lisa N. Meihls (MU: University of Missouri)H-Index: 14
Last. Bruce E. Hibbard (MU: University of Missouri)H-Index: 28
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In the United States of America, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is commonly managed with transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). Colonies of this pest have been selected in the laboratory on each commercially available transformation event and several resistant field populations have also been identified; some field populations are also resistant. In this...
29 CitationsSource
#1Galen DivelyBrian (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 35
#2P. Dilip Venugopal (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 10
Last. Chad A. Finkenbinder (Carlisle Companies)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
Background Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. Method...
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#2Zaiqi Pan (DuPont Pioneer)H-Index: 6
Last. Laura S. Higgins (DuPont Pioneer)H-Index: 6
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Zea mays L. (maize) hybrids producing the Cry1F protein from Bacillus thuringiensis were first commercialized in the United States in 2003. These products demonstrated varying levels of moderate control, but not immunity to Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (western bean cutworm). Susceptibility of western bean cutworm to Cry1F protein was assessed in field populations collected in the mid- and western United States in 2003, 2004, 2013, and 2014 using diet bioassay. A meta-an...
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#1Fangneng Huang (Louisiana State University Agricultural Center)H-Index: 30
#2Jawwad A. Qureshi (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 19
Last. Vikash Dangal (Louisiana State University Agricultural Center)H-Index: 3
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Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southeaste...
112 CitationsSource
#1Blair D. Siegfried (NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln)H-Index: 42
#2Murugesan Rangasamy (NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln)H-Index: 12
Last. Nicholas P. Storer (Dow AgroSciences)H-Index: 21
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BACKGROUND: Transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed European corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect throughout much of the US corn belt. A major assumption of the high-dose/refuge strategy proposed for insect resistance management and Bt corn is that the frequency of resistance alleles is low so that resistant pests surviving exposure to Bt corn will be rare. RESULTS:ThefrequencyofresistancetotheCry1FBttoxinwasestima...
30 CitationsSource
#1Aaron J. Gassmann (Iowa State University)H-Index: 25
#2Jennifer L. Petzold-Maxwell (Iowa State University)H-Index: 10
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The widespread planting of crops genetically engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) places intense selective pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Western corn rootworm is a key pest of maize, and in continuous maize fields it is often managed through planting of Bt maize. During 2009 and 2010, fields were identified in Iowa in which western corn rootworm imposed severe injury to maize producing Bt toxin Cry3Bb1. Subsequent b...
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Evolution of pest resistance to pesticides is an urgent global problem with resistance recorded in at least 954 species of pests, including 546 arthropods, 218 weeds, and 190 plant pathogens. To facilitate understanding and management of resistance, we provide definitions of 50 key terms related to resistance. We confirm the broad, long-standing definition of resistance, which is a genetically based decrease in susceptibility to a pesticide, and the definition of “field-evolved resistance,” whic...
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Abstract Insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can provide safe and effective control of some major pests, but evolution of resistance by pests diminishes these benefits. Better understanding of the genetics and mechanisms of resistance is urgently needed to improve methods for monitoring, managing, and countering pest resistance to Bt toxins. Here we used CRISPR-mediated knockouts to evaluate the role of five genes encoding candidate Bt toxin receptors in Spodopte...
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