Advances in Sphingolipidoses: CRISPR-Cas9 Editing as an Option for Modelling and Therapy
Published on Nov 24, 2019in International Journal of Molecular Sciences4.183
· DOI :10.3390/ijms20235897
Sphingolipidoses are inherited genetic diseases characterized by the accumulation of glycosphingolipids. Sphingolipidoses (SP), which usually involve the loss of sphingolipid hydrolase function, are of lysosomal origin, and represent an important group of rare diseases among lysosomal storage disorders. Initial treatments consisted of enzyme replacement therapy, but, in recent decades, various therapeutic approaches have been developed. However, these commonly used treatments for SP fail to be fully effective and do not penetrate the blood–brain barrier. New approaches, such as genome editing, have great potential for both the treatment and study of sphingolipidoses. Here, we review the most recent advances in the treatment and modelling of SP through the application of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. CRISPR-Cas9 is currently the most widely used method for genome editing. This technique is versatile; it can be used for altering the regulation of genes involved in sphingolipid degradation and synthesis pathways, interrogating gene function, generating knock out models, or knocking in mutations. CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing is being used as an approach to disease treatment, but more frequently it is utilized to create models of disease. New CRISPR-Cas9-based tools of gene editing with diminished off-targeting effects are evolving and seem to be more promising for the correction of individual mutations. Emerging Prime results and CRISPR-Cas9 difficulties are also discussed.