Participation of white adipose tissue dysfunction on circulating HDL cholesterol and HDL particle size in apparently healthy humans.
To use the combined presence of the elevated insulin resistance index in adipose tissue (Adipo-IR) and low values of adiponectin as a marker of dysfunctional adipose tissue, and to analyze its possible association with low values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and small size of HDL particles. The analysis included 253 subjects with functional adipose tissue and 253 with dysfunctional adipose tissue, considering similar gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). Adipo-IR was considered when index values (free fatty acids × insulin concentrations) were ≥75th percentile. Low levels of adiponectin were considered when concentration in serum was <25th percentile (determined by ELISA). HDL size was estimated by a quantitative validated equation. Small HDL size was considered when values were <25th percentile. When comparing subjects with functional adipose tissue with those of dysfunctional adipose tissue, the latter had a higher prevalence of low HDL-C (51.4% vs. 64.0%; p = 0.004) and small HDL (56.9% vs. 67.6%; p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis indicated that independently from other metabolic risk factors, dysfunction of adipose tissue is significantly associated with low HDL-C (OR: 1.624 [CI 95%: 1.100–2.397]) and small HDL (OR: 1.462 [CI 95%: 1.000–2.139]). Adding BMI, waist circumference, and subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue did not modify the association. Dysfunction of adipose tissue is associated with a 65 and 50% higher probability of having low HDL-C and small HDL. Identification of dysfunctional adipose tissue could be a useful tool in the clinical setting to prevent the cardiometabolic risk independently from adiposity.