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Comparative Study of the Temperature Sensitive, Cold Adapted and Attenuated Mutations Present in the Master Donor Viruses of the Two Commercial Human Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines.

Published on Oct 10, 2019in Viruses3.811
· DOI :10.3390/V11100928
Laura Rodriguez6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Pilar Blanco-Lobo1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 7 AuthorsLuis Martínez-Sobrido39
Estimated H-index: 39
Abstract
Influenza viruses cause annual, seasonal infection across the globe. Vaccination represents the most effective strategy to prevent such infections and/or to reduce viral disease. Two major types of influenza vaccines are approved for human use: inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) and live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs). Two Master Donor Virus (MDV) backbones have been used to create LAIVs against influenza A virus (IAV): the United States (US) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (AA) and the Russian A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (Len) H2N2 viruses. The mutations responsible for the temperature sensitive (ts), cold-adapted (ca) and attenuated (att) phenotypes of the two MDVs have been previously identified and genetically mapped. However, a direct comparison of the contribution of these residues to viral attenuation, immunogenicity and protection efficacy has not been conducted. Here, we compared the In vitro and in vivo phenotype of recombinant influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8) viruses containing the ts, ca and att mutations of the US (PR8/AA) and the Russian (PR8/Len) MDVs. Our results show that PR8/Len is more attenuated in vivo than PR8/AA, although both viruses induced similar levels of humoral and cellular responses, and protection against homologous and heterologous viral challenges. Our findings support the feasibility of using a different virus backbone as MDV for the development of improved LAIVs for the prevention of IAV infections.
  • References (51)
  • Citations (2)
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References51
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Abstract The continued detection of zoonotic influenza infections, most notably due to the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 subtypes, underscores the need for pandemic preparedness. Decades of experience with live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) for the control of seasonal influenza support the safety and effectiveness of this vaccine platform. All LAIV candidates are derived from one of two licensed master donor viruses (MDVs), cold-adapted ( ca ) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 or ca A/Leningrad/134/17/...
2 CitationsSource
#1Laura Rodriguez (UR: University of Rochester)H-Index: 6
#2Stephanie E. Reedy (UK: University of Kentucky)H-Index: 8
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Abstract H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) is an important and significant respiratory pathogen of horses. EIV is enzootic in Europe and North America, mainly due to the suboptimal efficacy of current vaccines. We describe, for the first time, the generation of a temperature sensitive (ts) H3N8 EIV live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using reverse-genetics approaches. Our EIV LAIV was attenuated (att) in vivo and able to induce, upon a single intranasal administration, protection against H3...
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Influenza viruses cause over 500,000 deaths worldwide1 and are associated with an annual cost of 12 - 14 billion USD in the United States alone considering direct medical and hospitalization expenses and work absenteeism2. Animal models are crucial in Influenza A virus (IAV) studies to evaluate viral pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, immune responses, and the efficacy of current and/or novel vaccine approaches as well as antivirals. Mice are an advantageous small animal model because the...
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