Operative resection in early stage pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in the United States: Are we over- or undertreating patients?

Published on Sep 1, 2019in Surgery3.48
· DOI :10.1016/j.surg.2019.04.061
Sitaram V. Chivukula (Rush University Medical Center), John F. Tierney1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Rush University Medical Center)
+ 2 AuthorsXavier M. Keutgen15
Estimated H-index: 15
(U of C: University of Chicago)
Abstract Background Many current guidelines recommend nonoperative management for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors Methods Using the National Cancer Database (2004–2014), 3,243 cases of T1 (≤2.0 cm) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were identified. Additional patient and tumor characteristics were examined. Multivariate models were used to identify factors that predicted resection and to assess patient survival after resection. Results 75% of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors measuring 0 to 1.0 cm and 80% of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors measuring >1.0 and ≤2.0 cm were resected. Eighty-four pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were functional, of which 82% were resected. Variables influencing resection included positive lymph nodes, tumor in body or tail of pancreas, well or moderately differentiated tumors, and resection at academic medical centers (odds ratio 1.5–4.9). When controlling for other variables, patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors 1 to 2 cm who underwent resection had a prolonged 5-year survival rate (hazard ratio 0.51, confidence interval 0.34–0.75) when compared with those who did not undergo resection. This survival benefit of resection was not found for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors 0 to 1 cm (hazard ratio = 0.63, confidence interval 0.36–1.11). Conclusions Contrary to many current recommendations, most patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors ≤2.0 cm undergo surgical resection in the United States. A survival benefit was found for resection of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors 1 to 2 cm, suggesting that current recommendations should perhaps be revised.
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