A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Role of Omega-3 PUFAs in Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis and Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

Published on Sep 23, 2019in Nutrients4.171
路 DOI :10.3390/nu11102279
Marialaura Simonetto1
Estimated H-index: 1
Marco Infante2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 2 AuthorsDavid Della-Morte26
Estimated H-index: 26
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory chronic disease affecting arterial vessels and leading to vascular diseases, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. The relationship between atherosclerosis and risk of neurodegeneration has been established, in particular with vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). Systemic atherosclerosis increases the risk of VCID by inducing cerebral infarction, or through systemic or local inflammatory factors that underlie both atherosclerosis and cognition. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in inflammatory processes, but with opposite roles. Specifically, omega-3 PUFAs exert anti-inflammatory properties by competing with omega-6 PUFAs and displacing arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids, decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Experimental studies and some clinical trials have demonstrated that omega-3 PUFA supplementation may reduce the risk of different phenotypes of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. This review describes the link between atherosclerosis, VCID and inflammation, as well as how omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be useful to prevent and treat inflammatory-related diseases.
  • References (176)
  • Citations (6)
馃摉 Papers frequently viewed together
7 Citations
33 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Matti MarklundH-Index: 12
#2Jason H.Y. WuH-Index: 35
Last. Ulf Ris茅rusH-Index: 47
view all 87 authors...
Background: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. T...
2 CitationsSource
#1Rebecca Power (WIT: Waterford Institute of Technology)H-Index: 6
#2Alfonso Prado-Cabrero (WIT: Waterford Institute of Technology)H-Index: 2
Last. John M. Nolan (WIT: Waterford Institute of Technology)H-Index: 34
view all 5 authors...
Improved life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a significant increase in age-related diseases. Dementia is one of the fastest growing age-related diseases, with 75 million adults globally proje...
2 CitationsSource
#1Magnus B盲ck (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 31
#2G枚ran K. Hansson (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 96
Although a high marine food intake is considered cardioprotective, randomized trials of 蠅-3 fatty acids initially generated conflicting results in terms of the role of 蠅-3 supplementation in cardio...
9 CitationsSource
#1JoAnn E. Manson (Harvard University)H-Index: 235
#2Nancy R. Cook (Harvard University)H-Index: 107
Last. Julie E. Buring (Harvard University)H-Index: 155
view all 17 authors...
Abstract Background Higher intake of marine n鈭3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer in several observational studies. Whether supplementation with n鈭3 fatty acids has such effects in general populations at usual risk for these end points is unclear. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (at a dose of 2000 IU per day) and marine n鈭3 fatty acids (at a d...
90 CitationsSource
Abstract Background Patients with elevated triglyceride levels are at increased risk for ischemic events. Icosapent ethyl, a highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester, lowers triglyceride levels, but data are needed to determine its effects on ischemic events. Methods We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients with established cardiovascular disease or with diabetes and other risk factors, who had been receiving statin therapy and wh...
240 CitationsSource
#1Marco Infante (University of Rome Tor Vergata)H-Index: 1
#2Camillo Ricordi (UM: University of Miami)H-Index: 83
Last. AndreaFabbri (University of Rome Tor Vergata)H-Index: 41
view all 8 authors...
2 CitationsSource
#1Jessica Alber (URI: University of Rhode Island)H-Index: 1
#2Suvarna Alladi (National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences)H-Index: 4
Last. Atticus H. Hainsworth (St George鈥檚 University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust)H-Index: 1
view all 53 authors...
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are frequently seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of older people. Usually interpreted clinically as a surrogate for cerebral small vessel disease, WMHs are associated with increased likelihood of cognitive impairment and dementia (including Alzheimer's disease [AD]). WMHs are also seen in cognitively healthy people. In this collaboration of academic, clinical, and pharmaceutical industry perspectives, we identify outstanding questions about WMHs ...
2 CitationsSource
#1Marco Infante (University of Rome Tor Vergata)H-Index: 2
#2Barry SearsH-Index: 2
Last. AndreaFabbriH-Index: 41
view all 7 authors...
ABSTRACTIntroduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal development of cognitive, social, and communicative skills. Although ASD aetiology and pathophysiology are still unclear, various nutritional factors have been investigated as potential risk factors for ASD development, including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and vitamin D deficiency. In fact, both omega-3 PUFAs and vitamin D are important for brain development ...
1 CitationsSource
The consumption of seed oils high in the omega-6 polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA) contributes to low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.1 Moreover, dietary LA significantly increases cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the aorta,2 converting arachidonic acid (AA) to proinflammatory eicosanoids. This may explain why increasing LA intake can actually lower AA levels due to an increased breakdown into harmful proinflammatory metabolites...
7 CitationsSource
#1Andres Laguna-Fernandez (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 7
#2Antonio Checa (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 15
Last. Magnus B盲ck (Karolinska University Hospital)H-Index: 31
view all 19 authors...
Background 鈥擨n addition to enhanced pro-inflammatory signaling, impaired resolution of vascular inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis. Pro-resolving lipid mediators formed through the 12/15 lipoxygenase pathways exert protective effects against murine atherosclerosis. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), serve as the substrate for the formation of lipid mediators, which transduce potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions through their cognat...
26 CitationsSource
Cited By6
#1Carolyn S. KaufmanH-Index: 1
#2Eric D. VidoniH-Index: 23
Last. Sandra A. BillingerH-Index: 19
view all 5 authors...
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) decreases across the lifespan, and chronic conditions such as dementia and stroke accelerate this decline. Impaired CBF results in reduced delivery of oxygen and nutrients, which can damage the brain over time. Thus, there is a need to identify lifestyle interventions, including diet and exercise, to maintain CBF with aging and in the presence of chronic disease. In the present study, we used transcranial Doppler ultrasound to record middle cerebral artery velocity (MCA...
#1Ermelinda Prato (IRSA)H-Index: 3
#2Giovanni Fanelli (IRSA)H-Index: 1
Last. Francesca Biandolino (IRSA)H-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
AbstractThe objective of the present study was to determine lipid content, fatty acid composition and the recommended daily portion of 13 fish species, nine bivalves, six crustacean, three echinode...
#2Eleni AndreouH-Index: 6
Last. Christoforos D. GiannakiH-Index: 13
view all 7 authors...
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a high-dose omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids supplementation, in combination with antioxidant vitamins, on cognitive function and functional capacity of older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), over a 6-month period in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-six older adults with MCI (age: 78.8 卤 7.3 years) were randomized 1:1 to receive either a 20 mL dose of a formula containing a mixture of omega-3 (810 mg...
1 CitationsSource
#1Oscar ColtellH-Index: 20
#2Jos茅 V. Sorl铆H-Index: 28
view all 13 authors...
Many early studies presented beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular risk factors and disease. However, results from recent meta-analyses indicate that this effect would be very low or nil. One of the factors that may contribute to the inconsistency of the results is that, in most studies, genetic factors have not been taken into consideration. It is known that fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster in chromosome 11 is a very important determinant of plasma ...
#1Roberta CazzolaH-Index: 14
Last. Benvenuto CestaroH-Index: 22
view all 6 authors...
N-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) seem to prevent endothelial dysfunction, a crucial step in atherogenesis, by modulating the levels of vasoactive molecules and by influencing Na,K-ATPase activity of vascular myocytes. The activity of endothelial Na,K-ATPase controls the ionic homeostasis of the neighboring cells, as well as cell function. However, controversy exists with respect to the vascular protective effect of EPA and DHA. We argue that this dispute might be du...
#1Marco InfanteH-Index: 2
#2Camillo RicordiH-Index: 83
Last. Rodolfo AlejandroH-Index: 48
view all 11 authors...
Recurrence of autoimmunity and allograft rejection represent major challenges that impact the success of islet transplantation. Despite the remarkable improvements achieved in immunosuppression strategies after the publication of the Edmonton protocol, long-term data of intra-hepatic islet transplantation show a gradual decline in beta-cell function. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the investigation of novel, safe and effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory strategies able to ...