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A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Role of Omega-3 PUFAs in Prevention and Treatment of Atherosclerosis and Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

Published on Sep 23, 2019in Nutrients4.171
路 DOI :10.3390/nu11102279
Marialaura Simonetto1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Marco Infante2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 2 AuthorsDavid Della-Morte26
Estimated H-index: 26
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory chronic disease affecting arterial vessels and leading to vascular diseases, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. The relationship between atherosclerosis and risk of neurodegeneration has been established, in particular with vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). Systemic atherosclerosis increases the risk of VCID by inducing cerebral infarction, or through systemic or local inflammatory factors that underlie both atherosclerosis and cognition. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in inflammatory processes, but with opposite roles. Specifically, omega-3 PUFAs exert anti-inflammatory properties by competing with omega-6 PUFAs and displacing arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids, decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Experimental studies and some clinical trials have demonstrated that omega-3 PUFA supplementation may reduce the risk of different phenotypes of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. This review describes the link between atherosclerosis, VCID and inflammation, as well as how omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be useful to prevent and treat inflammatory-related diseases.
  • References (176)
  • Citations (6)
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References176
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#2Jason H.Y. WuH-Index: 35
Last. Ulf Ris茅rusH-Index: 47
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Background: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. T...
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#1Rebecca Power (WIT: Waterford Institute of Technology)H-Index: 6
#2Alfonso Prado-Cabrero (WIT: Waterford Institute of Technology)H-Index: 2
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Improved life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a significant increase in age-related diseases. Dementia is one of the fastest growing age-related diseases, with 75 million adults globally proje...
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#1Magnus B盲ck (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 31
#2G枚ran K. Hansson (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 96
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Abstract Background Higher intake of marine n鈭3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer in several observational studies. Whether supplementation with n鈭3 fatty acids has such effects in general populations at usual risk for these end points is unclear. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (at a dose of 2000 IU per day) and marine n鈭3 fatty acids (at a d...
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Abstract Background Patients with elevated triglyceride levels are at increased risk for ischemic events. Icosapent ethyl, a highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester, lowers triglyceride levels, but data are needed to determine its effects on ischemic events. Methods We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients with established cardiovascular disease or with diabetes and other risk factors, who had been receiving statin therapy and wh...
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The consumption of seed oils high in the omega-6 polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA) contributes to low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.1 Moreover, dietary LA significantly increases cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the aorta,2 converting arachidonic acid (AA) to proinflammatory eicosanoids. This may explain why increasing LA intake can actually lower AA levels due to an increased breakdown into harmful proinflammatory metabolites...
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#1Andres Laguna-Fernandez (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 7
#2Antonio Checa (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 15
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Background 鈥擨n addition to enhanced pro-inflammatory signaling, impaired resolution of vascular inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis. Pro-resolving lipid mediators formed through the 12/15 lipoxygenase pathways exert protective effects against murine atherosclerosis. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), serve as the substrate for the formation of lipid mediators, which transduce potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions through their cognat...
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