Association of Timing of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Caregiver Support With Regionally Specific Brain Development in Adolescents

Published on Sep 18, 2019
· DOI :10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11426
Joan L. Luby37
Estimated H-index: 37
(WashU: Washington University in St. Louis),
Rebecca Tillman25
Estimated H-index: 25
(WashU: Washington University in St. Louis),
Deanna M77
Estimated H-index: 77
(WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)
Importance Few data are available to inform the associations and timing of the associations between adversity, caregiver support, and brain outcomes. Consideration of timing has important public health implications to inform more precise prevention strategies. Objective To evaluate the timing and regional specificity of the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and caregiver support to structural development of limbic and striatal brain regions in middle childhood and adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants This 15-year developmental, neuroimaging cohort study included 211 children and their caregivers screened from day care centers and preschools in the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area during the preschool period, with an additional 4 waves of neuroimaging at school age through adolescence from November 14, 2007, to August 29, 2017. The cohort was oversampled for preschoolers with elevated symptoms of depression using a brief screener. Data analysis was performed from March 19, 2019, to July 26, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures Volumes in adolescence and developmental trajectories of volumes of the amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, subgenual cingulate, and insula during 4 waves of scanning; ACEs and observed caregiver support at preschool and school age; and volumes of amygdala, hippocampus, insula, and subgenual cingulate during 4 waves of scanning. Results A total of 211 children (107 [50.7%] male) completed at least 1 scan. At preschool (mean [SD] age, 5.5 [0.8] years), ACE data were available for 164 children (84 [51.2%] male) and maternal support data for 155 children; at school age (mean [SD], 8.3 [1.2] years), ACE data were available for 172 children and maternal support data for 146 children. Unique patterns of the association between ACEs and support were found, with an association between the interaction of preschool ACEs and school-age support and the development of the hippocampus (t = −2.27;P = .02) and amygdala (t = −2.12;P = .04). A buffering hypothesis was not confirmed because high caregiver support was more strongly associated with the development of these regions only in the context of low ACEs. In contrast, preschool ACEs (t = −2.30;P = .02) and support (t = 2.59;P = .01) had independent associations with the development of the caudate. Conclusions and Relevance The findings suggest that there are unique regional associations of support and adversity with key brain structures important for emotional regulation. Results may inform the timing and potential targets of preventive action for the range of poor developmental outcomes.
  • References (33)
  • Citations (1)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
55 Citations
72 Citations
21 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Gene H. Brody (UGA: University of Georgia)H-Index: 79
#2Tianyi Yu (UGA: University of Georgia)H-Index: 22
Last. Lawrence H. Sweet (UGA: University of Georgia)H-Index: 32
view all 9 authors...
Children growing up in poverty are vulnerable to negative changes in the developing brain; however, these outcomes vary widely. We tested the hypothesis that receipt of supportive parenting would o...
2 CitationsSource
#1Danielle ShakedH-Index: 6
#2Zachary B. MillmanH-Index: 8
Last. Shari R. WaldsteinH-Index: 32
view all 13 authors...
2 CitationsSource
#2Jakob SeidlitzH-Index: 10
Last. Armin RaznahanH-Index: 31
view all 13 authors...
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) impacts cognitive development and mental health, but its association with human structural brain development is not yet well characterized. Here, we analyzed 1243 longitudinally acquired structural MRI scans from 623 youth (299 female/324 male) to investigate the relation between SES and cortical and subcortical morphology between ages 5 and 25 years. We found positive associations between SES and total volumes of the brain, cortical sheet, and four separate ...
13 CitationsSource
#1Martin H. Teicher (Harvard University)H-Index: 66
#2Carl M. Anderson (Harvard University)H-Index: 30
Last. Gordana Dragan Vitaliano (Harvard University)H-Index: 11
view all 8 authors...
Abstract The hippocampus is a highly stress susceptible structure and hippocampal abnormalities have been reported in a host of psychiatric disorders including major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The hippocampus appears to be particularly susceptible to early life stress with a graded reduction in volume based on number of types (multiplicity) or severity of maltreatment. We assessed whether the most important predictors of adult hippocampal volume were multiplicity, seve...
23 CitationsSource
#1Sarah Whittle (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 33
#2Nandita Vijayakumar (UO: University of Oregon)H-Index: 17
Last. Nicholas B. Allen (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 58
view all 9 authors...
30 CitationsSource
1 CitationsSource
#1Martin H. TeicherH-Index: 66
Last. Kyoko OhashiH-Index: 16
view all 4 authors...
Adverse childhood experiences have a wide range of effects on the structure, function and connectivity of the developing brain. Teicher et al. suggest that such changes might reflect adaptive modifications that, in some susceptible individuals, could contribute to psychopathology.
232 CitationsSource
#1Matthew F. Glasser (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 37
#2Stephen J. Smith (University of Oxford)H-Index: 140
Last. David C. Van Essen (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 80
view all 16 authors...
This paper describes an integrated approach for neuroimaging data acquisition, analysis and sharing. Building on methodological advances from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and elsewhere, the HCP-style paradigm applies to new and existing data sets that meet core requirements and may accelerate progress in understanding the brain in health and disease.
202 CitationsSource
#1Joan L. Luby (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 37
#2Andy C. Belden (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 25
Last. Deanna M (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 77
view all 5 authors...
Building on well-established animal data demonstrating the effects of early maternal support on hippocampal development and adaptive coping, a few longitudinal studies suggest that early caregiver support also impacts human hippocampal development. How caregiving contributes to human hippocampal developmental trajectories, whether there are sensitive periods for these effects, as well as whether related variation in hippocampal development predicts later childhood emotion functioning are of majo...
45 CitationsSource
#1Sara B. Johnson (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 13
#2Jenna L. Riis (Johns Hopkins University)H-Index: 7
Last. Kimberly G. Noble (Columbia University)H-Index: 24
view all 3 authors...
In the United States, >40% of children are either poor or near-poor. As a group, children in poverty are more likely to experience worse health and more developmental delay, lower achievement, and more behavioral and emotional problems than their more advantaged peers; however, there is broad variability in outcomes among children exposed to similar conditions. Building on a robust literature from animal models showing that environmental deprivation or enrichment shapes the brain, there has been...
102 CitationsSource
Cited By1
#1Sanne J.H. van Rooij (Emory University)H-Index: 9
#2Ryan D. Smith (Emory University)
Last. Tanja Jovanovic (WSU: Wayne State University)H-Index: 1
view all 8 authors...
Most studies investigating the effect of childhood trauma on the brain are retrospective and mainly focus on maltreatment, whereas different types of trauma exposure such as growing up in a violent neighborhood, as well as developmental stage, could have differential effects on brain structure and function. The current magnetic resonance imaging study assessed the effect of trauma exposure broadly and violence exposure more specifically, as well as developmental stage on the fear neurocircuitry ...