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Genetic Signatures of Drug Response Variability in Drosophila melanogaster

Published on Oct 1, 2019in Genetics3.564
· DOI :10.1534/genetics.119.302381
Palle Duun Rohde5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Lundbeck),
Iben Jensen7
Estimated H-index: 7
(AAU: Aalborg University)
+ 4 AuthorsTorsten Nygaard Kristensen40
Estimated H-index: 40
(AU: Aarhus University)
Sources
Abstract
Knowledge of the genetic basis underlying variation in response to environmental exposures or treatments is important in many research areas. For example, knowing the set of causal genetic variants for drug responses could revolutionize personalized medicine. We used Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the genetic signature underlying behavioral variability in response to methylphenidate (MPH), a drug used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We exposed a wild-type D. melanogaster population to MPH and a control treatment, and observed an increase in locomotor activity in MPH-exposed individuals. Whole-genome transcriptomic analyses revealed that the behavioral response to MPH was associated with abundant gene expression alterations. To confirm these patterns in a different genetic background and to further advance knowledge on the genetic signature of drug response variability, we used a system of inbred lines, the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). Based on the DGRP, we showed that the behavioral response to MPH was strongly genotype-dependent. Using an integrative genomic approach, we incorporated known gene interactions into the genomic analyses of the DGRP, and identified putative candidate genes for variability in drug response. We successfully validated 71% of the investigated candidate genes by gene expression knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that MPH has cross-generational behavioral and transcriptomic effects. Our findings establish a foundation for understanding the genetic mechanisms driving genotype-specific responses to medical treatment, and highlight the opportunities that integrative genomic approaches have in optimizing medical treatment of complex diseases.
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Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new inform...
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#1Torsten Nygaard Kristensen (AU: Aarhus University)H-Index: 40
#2Tarmo Ketola (University of Jyväskylä)H-Index: 14
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Understanding the genetic underpinnings of complex traits requires knowledge of the genetic variants that contribute to phenotypic variability. Reliable statistical approaches are needed to obtain such knowledge. In genome-wide association studies, variants are tested for association with trait variability to pinpoint loci that contribute to the quantitative trait. Because stringent genome-wide significance thresholds are applied to control the false positive rate, many true causal variants can ...
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The genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model has proven to be useful for prediction of complex traits as well as estimation of population genetic parameters. Improved inference and prediction accuracy of GBLUP may be achieved by identifying genomic regions enriched for causal genetic variants. We aimed at searching for patterns in GBLUP-derived single-marker statistics, by including them in genetic marker set tests, that could reveal associations between a set of genetic markers (ge...
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