Sea Captains' Views on Automated Ship Route Optimization in Ice-covered Waters

Published on Aug 14, 2019in Journal of Navigation1.506
· DOI :10.1017/s0373463319000651
Ville V. Lehtola1
Estimated H-index: 1
Ville V. Lehtola8
Estimated H-index: 8
+ 0 AuthorsJohanna Salokannel
Safety in ice-covered polar waters can be optimised via the choice of a ship's route. This is of utmost importance for conventional as well as autonomous ships. However, the current state of the art in e-Navigation tools has left two open questions. First, what essential information are these tools still missing, and second, how they are seen by sea captains. In order to address these questions, we organised an ice navigation workshop to systematically collect routing justifications given by and waypoints planned by experienced sea captains that are particularly seasoned in ice navigation. Here, we report the outcome of that workshop. Our key findings include the reasoning and the commentary of the participants in looking for a better and safer route. These comments shed light upon both the official and unofficial code of conduct in open waters and boil down into a list of additional prerequisite information if further steps towards system autonomy are sought. Finally, the expert-planned waypoints are to be published alongside this paper to act as a benchmark for future maritime studies.
  • References (26)
  • Citations (0)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
3 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Ville V. Lehtola (UT: University of Twente)H-Index: 1
#2Jakub Montewka (National Land Survey of Finland)H-Index: 21
Last. Mikko Lensu (Finnish Meteorological Institute)H-Index: 9
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Safety for conventional and autonomous navigation in ice-covered waters is a topic of rising importance. Here, we propose a generic extendable framework to provide the optimal route from multiple route planning objectives. These objectives are attained by an evaluation of multi-source input data, including state-of-the-art model data for ice conditions, for bathymetric knowledge, and for ship-ice interaction. Additionally, we model the ship-ship interactions statistically using a mean-f...
1 CitationsSource
#1Jakub Montewka (Aalto University)H-Index: 21
#2Floris Goerlandt (Aalto University)H-Index: 22
Last. Robert GuinnessH-Index: 9
view all 5 authors...
Practical knowledge about the performance of a ship while navigating in ice is crucial for the selection of safe and efficient route for a ship. Existing route finding tools estimate ship performance in ice adopting numerous approaches, ranging from model tests and engineering models to experts-based guidelines. Therein ship performance is usually understood as attainable ship speed or the average speed in given ice conditions; rarely the probability of besetting in ice is taken into account. Th...
3 CitationsSource
#1Fang Li (Aalto University)H-Index: 3
#2Floris Goerlandt (Aalto University)H-Index: 22
Last. Mikko Lensu (Finnish Meteorological Institute)H-Index: 9
view all 5 authors...
Abstract For the design and transit simulation of ice-going ships, a number of methods have been proposed for the prediction of ship resistance and transit speed in various ice conditions. In this paper, selected methods for ship performance in level ice, ridged ice and channel ice are evaluated based on full-scale measurement data of two ships. Uncertainties are identified and evaluated for a better understanding of the deviations in the results. Ice thickness in full-scale data was measured us...
10 CitationsSource
Abstract Ship routing process taking into account weather conditions is a constrained multi-objective optimization problem and it should consider various optimization criteria and constraints. Formulation of a stability-related, dynamic route optimization constraint is presented in this paper. One of the key objectives of a cross ocean sailing is finding a compromise between ship safety and economics of operation. This compromise should be taken into account by the planning procedure and proper ...
12 CitationsSource
#1Henry Piehl (NTNU: Norwegian University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 2
#2Aleksandar-Saša Milaković (NTNU: Norwegian University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 2
Last. Sören Ehlers (TUHH: Hamburg University of Technology)H-Index: 14
view all 3 authors...
4 CitationsSource
#1Fang Li (Aalto University)H-Index: 3
#2Jakub Montewka (Aalto University)H-Index: 21
Last. Pentti Kujala (Aalto University)H-Index: 27
view all 4 authors...
Navigation in ice covered waters is a challenging and hazardous activity, threatening the ship herself and the environment. Proper evaluation of the attainable ship speed in ice prior to setting off the journey is essential to mitigate the risk of besetting in ice which may cause further damages. The majority of the existing models evaluating ship speed in ice are physics-driven requiring detailed, not always accessible, input data, thus featuring high uncertainty. In this paper we propose an ev...
4 CitationsSource
#1Lauri Kuuliala (Aalto University)H-Index: 2
#2Pentti Kujala (Aalto University)H-Index: 27
Last. Jakub MontewkaH-Index: 21
view all 4 authors...
Abstract A method for estimating ship's resistance caused by sea ice ridge keels is revised and used as a part of a method for predicting performance of ships in ridged ice conditions. The resistance method is based on a continuum plasticity model of ridge rubble and is simple to compute. The performance prediction method combines deterministic simulations of ship motion with probabilistic modelling of ridged ice fields. Performance estimates given by the model are distribution of attainable mea...
15 CitationsSource
#1Lars Kaleschke (UHH: University of Hamburg)H-Index: 31
#2Xiangshan Tian-Kunze (UHH: University of Hamburg)H-Index: 12
Last. T. Casal (ESTEC: European Space Research and Technology Centre)H-Index: 3
view all 28 authors...
Brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz (L-band) measured by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission have been used to derive the thickness of sea ice. The retrieval method is applicable only for relatively thin ice and not during the melting period. Hitherto, the availability of ground truth sea ice thickness measurements for validation of SMOS sea ice products was mainly limited to relatively thick ice. The situation has improved with an extensive field campaign in the Barents Sea durin...
26 CitationsSource
#1Mark A. Stoddard (Dal: Dalhousie University)H-Index: 1
#2Laurent Etienne (François Rabelais University)H-Index: 4
Last. Leah Beveridge (Dal: Dalhousie University)H-Index: 3
view all 5 authors...
Maritime traffic volume in the Arctic is growing for several reasons: climate change is resulting in less ice in extent, duration, and thickness; economic drivers are inducing growth in resource extraction traffic, community size (affecting resupply) and adventure tourism. This dynamic situation, coupled with harsh weather, variable operating conditions, remoteness, and lack of straightforward emergency response options, demand robust risk management processes. The requirements for risk manageme...
9 CitationsSource
Conventional ice navigation in the sea is manually operated by well-trained navigators, whose experiences are heavily relied upon to guarantee the ship’s safety. Despite the increasingly available ice data and information, little has been done to develop an automatic ice navigation support system to better guide ships in the sea. In this study, using the vector-formatted ice data and navigation codes in northern regions, we calculate ice numeral and divide sea area into two parts: continuous nav...
6 CitationsSource
Cited By0