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Incretin Hormones: The Link between Glycemic Index and Cardiometabolic Diseases

Published in Nutrients4.17
· DOI :10.3390/nu11081878
Teresa Salvatore20
Estimated H-index: 20
,
Riccardo Nevola6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ -3 AuthorsFerdinando Carlo Sasso23
Estimated H-index: 23
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Abstract
This review aimed to describe the potential mechanisms by which incretin hormones could mediate the relationship between glycemic index and cardiometabolic diseases. A body of evidence from many studies suggests that low glycemic index (GI) diets reduces the risk for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. In fact, despite the extensive literature on this topic, the mechanisms underlying unfavorable effects of high GI foods on health remain not well defined. The postprandial and hormonal milieu could play a key role in the relationship between GI and cardiovascular risk. Incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are important regulators of postprandial homeostasis by amplifying insulin secretory responses. Response of GIP and GLP-1 to GI have been studied more in depth, also by several studies on isomaltulose, which have been taken as an ideal model to investigate the kinetics of incretin secretion in response to foods’ GI. In addition, extrapancreatic effects of these incretin hormones were also recently observed. Emerging from this have been exciting effects on several targets, such as body weight regulation, lipid metabolism, white adipose tissue, cardiovascular system, kidney, and liver, which may importantly affect the health status.
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References98
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Published on Jun 1, 2019in The Lancet59.10
Hertzel C. Gerstein89
Estimated H-index: 89
(Population Health Research Institute),
Helen M. Colhoun47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh)
+ 1453 AuthorsLars Rydén89
Estimated H-index: 89
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
Summary Background Three different glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduce cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk with high glycated haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) concentrations. We assessed the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on major adverse cardiovascular events when added to the existing antihyperglycaemic regimens of individuals with type 2 diabetes with and without previous cardiovascular disease and a wide range of...
Published on Apr 17, 2019in Molecules3.06
Małgorzata Szczuko3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Marta Zapałowska-Chwyć3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Radosław Drozd
Introduction: According to a review of the literature, there is a lack of data on the mechanisms that participate in the suppression of inflammation that accompanies polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Additionally, the changes in oxidative status resulting from a low-calorie diet have not been studied in a group of women with PCOS, and the oxidation and reduction processes associated with PCOS have not been explained. Material and methods: The study involved 49 women who were diagnosed with PCOS ...
Published on Jun 29, 2018in Ginekologia Polska0.75
Małgorzata Szczuko3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Marta Zapałowska-Chwyć3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 4 AuthorsEwa Stachowska12
Estimated H-index: 12
Objectives: An increase in IGF-I and TNF-α may be a cardioprotective effect. To examine the relationships between IGF-I and TNF-α and test the anthropometric and biochemical parameters before and after a low-glycemic index reduction diet using a correlation matrix. Material and methods: Twenty-two women diagnosed with PCOS according to Rotterdam’s criteria were eligible for this study, which analysed the results before and after a three months dietary intervention. Body composition measurements ...
Published on Feb 1, 2018in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism6.13
Michael A. Nauck78
Estimated H-index: 78
(RUB: Ruhr University Bochum),
Juris J. Meier57
Estimated H-index: 57
(RUB: Ruhr University Bochum)
Published on Nov 1, 2017in The Lancet59.10
Mahshid Dehghan22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Population Health Research Institute),
Andrew Mente30
Estimated H-index: 30
(McMaster University)
+ 352 AuthorsAnders H. Rosengren84
Estimated H-index: 84
(University of Gothenburg)
Summary Background The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. Methods The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35–70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median fo...
Published on Jul 31, 2017in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews7.75
Christine Clar24
Estimated H-index: 24
,
Lena Al-Khudairy8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Warw.: University of Warwick)
+ 6 AuthorsKaren Rees33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Warw.: University of Warwick)
Background The glycaemic index (GI) is a physiological measure of the ability of a carbohydrate to affect blood glucose. Interest is growing in this area for the clinical management of people at risk of, or with, established cardiovascular disease. There is a need to review the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this area. This is an update of the original review published in 2008. Objectives To assess the effect of the dietary GI on total mortality, cardiovascular even...
Published on Apr 1, 2017in European Journal of Nutrition4.45
Coby Eelderink5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UG: University of Groningen),
Martijn W. J. Noort3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 8 AuthorsLizette Oudhuis3
Estimated H-index: 3
Purpose Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response after their consumption.
Published on Dec 10, 2016in Nutrients4.17
Judith Keller3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Julia Kahlhöfer4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 1 AuthorsAnja Bosy-Westphal40
Estimated H-index: 40
Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional sugars with low compared to high glycemic index (GI) have beneficial effects on arterial stiffness during a period of low-physical activity. In a controlled cross-over dietary intervention (55% CHO, 30% fat, 15% protein), 13 healthy men (age: 23.7 ± 2.2 years, body mass index: 23.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) completed 2 × 1 week of low physical activity following 1 week ...
Published on Nov 10, 2016in The New England Journal of Medicine70.67
Steven P. Marso20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Research Medical Center),
Stephen C. Bain37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Swansea University)
+ 12 AuthorsMark L. Warren3
Estimated H-index: 3
BackgroundRegulatory guidance specifies the need to establish cardiovascular safety of new diabetes therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes in order to rule out excess cardiovascular risk. The cardiovascular effects of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue with an extended half-life of approximately 1 week, in type 2 diabetes are unknown. MethodsWe randomly assigned 3297 patients with type 2 diabetes who were on a standard-care regimen to receive once-weekly semaglutide (0.5 mg or 1...
Published on Jul 28, 2016in The New England Journal of Medicine70.67
Steven P. Marso20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UTSW: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center),
Gilbert H. Daniels44
Estimated H-index: 44
(Harvard University)
+ 12 AuthorsLasse Steen Ravn4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Novo Nordisk)
BackgroundThe cardiovascular effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, when added to standard care in patients with type 2 diabetes, remains unknown. MethodsIn this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk to receive liraglutide or placebo. The primary composite outcome in the time-to-event analysis was the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. The prima...
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