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Smoking habits and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in men and women: findings of a 12 year follow up among an urban Eastern-Mediterranean population

Published on Dec 1, 2019in BMC Public Health2.567
· DOI :10.1186/s12889-019-7390-0
Parisa Amiri10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services),
Kamyar Mohammadzadeh-Naziri1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services)
+ 6 AuthorsFereidoun Azizi66
Estimated H-index: 66
(Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services)
Sources
Abstract
Despite the strong association of smoking with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cerebral stroke, the consequences of smoking have not been elucidated among Iranian populations. This study aimed to assess sex-specific incidence of CVDs among an urban Iranian population with different smoking habits. Participants were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Data on socio-demographic features and smoking habits from a sample of 10,400 individuals (4378 men and 6022 women), aged ≥20 years without prior CVD history were analyzed. Participants were followed up for 12 years for incidence of CVD/CHD events. Men were categorized in six groups, including never-, passive, ex-, passive and ex-, occasional and daily smokers. Women were categorized in three groups, i.e. never smokers, passive smokers and ever smokers. Using cox regression model, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of incident CVD/CHD were calculated for each group, given never smokers as the reference. In men, HR of CVD was 1.13 (95%CI: 0.80–1.59) in passive smokers, 1.23 (95%CI: 0.91–1.66) in ex-smokers, 1.46 (95%CI: 0.90–2.36) in passive and ex-smokers, 2.33 (95%CI: 1.25–4.33) in occasional smokers and 2.05 (95%CI: 1.57–2.67) in daily smokers. In smokers of ≥21 cigarettes/day, HR of CVD was 3.79 (95%CI: 2.25–6.37), with less risk observed in those who smoked lesser numbers of cigarettes/day. Quitters of ≥15 years were almost risk free. In women, none of the HRs of CVD/CHD were significant. An increased risk of incidence of CVD/CHD was found in current male smokers. To confirm and further elaborate these findings, more data of sex-specific studies are required from culturally diverse urban and rural areas of Iran.
  • References (49)
  • Citations (1)
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References49
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Background: To examine the joint effects of smoking and blood pressure on the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of Chinese men. Methods: This study followed a cohort of 213,221 men over 40 years of age who were recruited from 45 district/counties across China between 1990–1991, and whose cause-specific mortality was examined for 15 years, up to 31 December 2005. We calculated hazard ratios for all-cause mortality and CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and stroke mor...
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#1Karam Turk-AdawiH-Index: 5
#2Nizal SarrafzadeganH-Index: 44
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Cardiovascular mortality among the almost 600 million people living in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) has been proposed to increase more dramatically in the next decade than in any other region except Africa. Turk-Adawi and colleagues summarize the available data on cardiovascular disease burden, risk factors, and treatment modalities for the EMR population.
15 CitationsSource
#1Candan Kendir (Dokuz Eylül University)H-Index: 1
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AbstractBackground: Comorbidity is a cause of increased mortality, decreased quality of life and increased use of healthcare services. It is important particularly for physicians and other healthcare providers in primary care settings to evaluate these patients properly. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of death from non-communicable diseases worldwide and are characterized by a high level of comorbidities.Objectives: To address the distribution of CVDs and comorbidities a...
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#1Gregory A. Roth (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 52
#2Catherine O. Johnson (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 29
Last. Christopher Margono (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 162
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Abstract Background The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world. Objectives The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden. Methods CVD mortality was estimated from vital registration and verbal autopsy data. CVD prevalence was estimated using modeling software and data from health surveys, prospective cohorts, health s...
462 CitationsSource
#1David F. Yankelevitz (ISMMS: Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)H-Index: 58
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5 CitationsSource
Objectives The study aimed to review the epidemiological evidence relating environmental tobacco smoke exposure to stroke in never smokers. Methods The study is similar to our review in 2006, with searches extended to March 2016. Results Twelve further studies were identified. A total of 28 studies varied considerably in design, exposure indices used, and disease definition. Based on 39 sex-specific estimates and the exposure index current spousal exposure (or nearest equivalent), the meta-analy...
7 CitationsSource
#1Sheila Afsharian (Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services)H-Index: 1
#2Samaneh Akbarpour (Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services)H-Index: 6
Last. Farzad Hadaegh (Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services)H-Index: 30
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Background To identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality events in patients with type 2 diabetes and to calculate their population attributable fraction among a representative Iranian population. Methods A total of 1198 patients with type 2 diabetes (504 men and 694 women), aged ≥30 years, without prevalent CVD, with a median follow-up of 10 years were included in current study. To examine the association between risk factors and their outcomes, multivariate sex-adjuste...
12 CitationsSource
#1Farzad Hadaegh (Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services)H-Index: 30
#2Arash Derakhshan (Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services)H-Index: 9
Last. Fereidoun Azizi (Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services)H-Index: 66
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Introduction To examine the associations between smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) / coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality events in men with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a Middle Eastern cohort during a median follow-up of 12 years. Methods The study population included 2230 subjects aged ≥ 40 years, free from CVD, comprised of 367 participants with diabetes (21.2% current smokers) and 1863 without (27.3% current smokers). Multivariate Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% co...
11 CitationsSource
Background: Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran . Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death in China. Identifying the relationship between particulate matter (PM) and CVD in China is a significant challenge. In this study, daily CVD emergency room visit, environmental monitoring, and weather data from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2018, in Lanzhou were collected. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were constructed to estimate the short-term effects of daily PM2.5, PMC, and PM10 concentrations on CVD emergency room visi...
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