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Straight-jawed lacewing larvae (Neuroptera) from Lower Cretaceous Spanish amber, with an account on the known amber diversity of neuropterid immatures

Published on Feb 1, 2020in Cretaceous Research2.12
· DOI :10.1016/j.cretres.2019.104200
Ricardo Pérez-de la Fuente10
Estimated H-index: 10
(University of Oxford),
Michael S. Engel37
Estimated H-index: 37
(AMNH: American Museum of Natural History)
+ 1 AuthorsEnrique Peñalver18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Instituto Geológico y Minero de España)
Abstract
Abstract Three larval neuropterans (Insecta: Neuropterida) with straight mandibulomaxillary stylets are described from Lower Cretaceous (late Albian, ~105 Ma) Spanish amber: a third-instar beaded lacewing (Berothidae) from the Penacerrada I locality (Burgos, Spain), and two specimens from the San Just locality (Teruel, Spain), i.e., a tentative first-instar beaded lacewing and a remarkable specimen considered a berothid-like mantispoid or dilaroid (instar unknown) displaying a combination of potentially plesiomorphic characters and some unique features. These morphotypes are among the oldest straight-jawed neuropteran larvae described. According to the morphology of the specimens and the taphonomy of the amber pieces where they are embedded, the described forms are regarded as active predators of small soft-bodied arthropods, probably living among bark or other vegetation of the resin-producing forest although they could have frequented the soil. An account of the diversity of larval Neuropterida described and/or figured from amber localities worldwide is provided, including reassessments of some specimens. The gathering diversity of fossil immature neuropterans, like that of their adult counterparts, already leans towards reflecting a greater diversity and disparity of the group in deep time ‒particularly during the Cretaceous‒ than in modern days, and it is worthy of increased research efforts due to the evolutionary and palaeobiological potential that it holds.
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#2Michael S. Engel (AMNH: American Museum of Natural History)H-Index: 37
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Abstract Frenelopsis justae sp. nov. is reported from the middle – lower upper Albian Escucha Formation of San Just, Teruel province, Spain. It shows micro-morphological features hitherto undescribed in the genus Frenelopsis including: (1) individual stomatal apparatus comprised of only three subsidiary cells; (2) clusters of 2–3 stomatal apparatus sharing a single subsidiary cell; (3) stomatal rows that bifurcate; and (4) an internal, cylindrical, cell layer preserved between the adaxial and ab...
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#1Ricardo Pérez-de la Fuente (University of Oxford)H-Index: 10
#2Enrique Peñalver (Instituto Geológico y Minero de España)H-Index: 18
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The larval stages of the genus Kempynus Navas, 1912 (probably K. falcatus Navas, 1912 based on the presence of synchronic and sympatric adults) are described for the Neotropical Region for the first time, and the larval stages of Isostenosmylus pulverulentus (Gerstaecker, 1893) are redescribed. The external morphology of third-instar larvae of both species and their habitats are described and compared. Kempynus sp. is a water-dependent species and can be considered semi-aquatic, whereas I. pulve...
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