Match!

Validity and reliability of test strips for the measurement of salivary nitrite concentration with and without the use of mouthwash in healthy adults

Published on Oct 1, 2019in Nitric Oxide3.371
· DOI :10.1016/j.niox.2019.07.002
Abrar Babateen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Newcastle University),
Oliver M. Shannon6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Newcastle University)
+ 1 AuthorsMario Siervo34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Newcastle University)
Abstract
Abstract The nitrate (NO 3 − )-nitrite (NO 2 − )-nitric oxide (NO) pathway has received considerable interest in recent years as a potential target for nutritional interventions designed to increase NO production, and elicit therapeutic effects in humans. In particular, studies have evaluated the effects of supplemental dietary NO 3 − , which serves as a ‘substrate’ for this pathway, on numerous different health outcomes. One challenge has been to evaluate compliance with the NO 3 − interventions. A recent advance in this field has been the development of a non-invasive, simple and rapid method to measure nitrite concentrations in saliva using small test salivary strips. In the present study, ten healthy adults were recruited to a randomised, crossover study and received an acute dose of NO 3 − -rich beetroot juice (BJ) after rinsing their mouth with either water or commercially available antibacterial mouthwash. Salivary NO 3 − and NO 2 − concentrations were measured at baseline and up to 5 h after BJ consumption using the gold-standard chemiluminescence and a colorimetric Griess assay. In addition, two salivary test strips (Berkeley Test strips, CA, USA) were used to measure NO 2 − concentrations at the same time points. Five observers read the strips and inter- and intra-observer reliability was measured. The Bland-Altman method was used to provide a visual representation of the agreement between the methods used to evaluate salivary NO 3 − /NO 2 − concentration. Sialin concentrations were measured at baseline and up to 5 h after BJ consumption. BJ elevated salivary NO 3 − and NO 2 − concentrations when the mouth was rinsed with water (both P  2 − (P  3 − concentrations were unaffected (P > 0.05). The Intra-Class Coefficients of Correlation (ICC) showed a high inter- and intra-observer reliability (r > 0.8). A significant positive correlation was found between absolute salivary NO 2 − concentrations measured by strips and Griess and chemiluminescence methods (rho = 0.83 and 0.77, respectively) and also when expressed as changes in salivary NO 2 − concentrations (rho = 0.80 and 0.79, respectively). Bland Altman analysis indicated a poor agreement for absolute NO 2 − concentrations between salivary strips and the chemiluminescence and Griess methods. A small significant negative correlation was found between changes in salivary sialin and salivary NO 2 ˉ concentrations (r = -0.20, P = 0.04). A non-significant positive correlation was observed between the change in salivary sialin and salivary NO 3 ˉ concentrations (r = 0.18, P = 0.06). This study suggests that commercially available salivary NO 2 − test strips provide a reasonable surrogate marker for monitoring changes in salivary NO 2 − concentrations in humans. However, the strips do not provide accurate estimates of absolute NO 2 − concentrations.
  • References (26)
  • Citations (0)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
8 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References26
Newest
#1Tom Clifford (Newcastle University)H-Index: 7
#2Abrar Babateen (UQU: Umm al-Qura University)H-Index: 2
Last. Mario Siervo (Newcastle University)H-Index: 34
view all 11 authors...
ABSTRACTWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials examining the effect of inorganic nitrate or nitrite supplementation on cognitive function (CF) and cerebral...
2 CitationsSource
#1Sinead T. J. McDonagh (University of Exeter)H-Index: 5
#2Lee J. Wylie (University of Exeter)H-Index: 14
Last. Andrew M. Jones (University of Exeter)H-Index: 70
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Inorganic nitrate (NO3−) supplementation has been shown to improve cardiovascular health indices in healthy adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the vehicle of NO3− administration can influence NO3− metabolism and the subsequent blood pressure response. Ten healthy males consumed an acute equimolar dose of NO3− (∼5.76 mmol) in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice drink (BR; 55 mL), a non-concentrated beetroot juice drink (BL; 456 mL) and a solid beetroot flapjac...
8 CitationsSource
#1Ann Ashworth (PSU: Plymouth State University)H-Index: 2
#2Raul Bescos (PSU: Plymouth State University)H-Index: 11
Dietary nitrate is mainly obtained from vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables and beetroot. As a result of early research, dietary nitrate is currently viewed as a contaminant linked to increased risks of stomach cancer and methaemoglobinaemia. Consequently, nitrate levels are restricted in certain vegetables and in water supplies to ensure exposure levels remain below an acceptable daily intake of 3·7 mg/kg per d. The average nitrate intake in the UK is approximately 70 mg/d, although s...
13 CitationsSource
#1Kaumudi Joshipura (Harvard University)H-Index: 46
#2Francisco J. Muñoz-Torres (University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus)H-Index: 4
Last. Rakesh P. Patel (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 63
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Aims Over-the-counter mouthwash comprises part of routine oral care for many; however, potential adverse effects of the long-term daily use have not been evaluated. Most mouthwash contain antibacterial ingredients, which could impact oral microbes critical for nitric oxide formation, and in turn predispose to metabolic disorders including diabetes. Our aim was to evaluate longitudinally the association between baseline over-the-counter mouthwash use and development of pre-diabetes/diabe...
10 CitationsSource
#1Ashwin Modi (University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus)H-Index: 1
#2Evangelia Morou-Bermudez (UPR: University of Puerto Rico)H-Index: 9
Last. Kaumudi Joshipura (Harvard University)H-Index: 46
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous signaling molecule, which plays important roles in cardiometabolic health. A significant source of NO is dietary nitrate (NO 3 ), which is initially metabolized by oral bacteria into nitrite (NO 2 − ) and is subsequently converted into NO once digested in the acidic gastric environment. Inexpensive non-invasive tests for measuring nitrite from saliva have been developed as a means for individuals to monitor their NO bioavailability. However, few studie...
3 CitationsSource
#1Ya ShenH-Index: 40
#2Jia ZhaoH-Index: 12
Last. Qi WangH-Index: 26
view all 10 authors...
We investigate recovery of multispecies oral biofilms following chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and CHX with surface modifiers (CHX-Plus) treatment. Specifically, we examine the percentage of viable bacteria in the biofilms following their exposure to CHX and CHX-Plus for 1, 3, and 10 minutes, respectively. Before antimicrobial treatment, the biofilms are allowed to grow for three weeks. We find that (a). CHX-Plus kills bacteria in biofilms more effectively than the regular 2% CHX does, (b). cell ...
20 CitationsSource
#1Mary N. Woessner (VU: Victoria University, Australia)H-Index: 4
#2James M. Smoliga (High Point University)H-Index: 20
Last. Jason D. Allen (VU: Victoria University, Australia)H-Index: 26
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Nitric Oxide (NO) bioavailability is essential for vascular health. Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate, which is abundant in vegetables and roots, has been identified as an effective means of increasing vascular NO bioavailability. Recent studies have shown a reduction in resting blood pressures in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects following ingestion of inorganic nitrate. Oral bacteria play a key role in this process and the use of strong antibacterial mouthwash r...
48 CitationsSource
#1Sami Omar (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 1
#2Andrew J. Webb ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 22
Last. Eddie Weitzberg (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 54
view all 4 authors...
Nitric oxide (NO) is generated endogenously by NO synthases to regulate a number of physiological processes including cardiovascular and metabolic functions. A decrease in the production and bioavailability of NO is a hallmark of many major chronic diseases including hypertension, ischaemia–reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and diabetes. This NO deficiency is mainly caused by dysfunctional NO synthases and increased scavenging of NO by the formation of reactive oxygen species. Inorganic nitrat...
66 CitationsSource
#1Sinead T. J. McDonagh (University of Exeter)H-Index: 5
#2Lee J. Wylie (University of Exeter)H-Index: 14
Last. Andrew M. Jones (University of Exeter)H-Index: 70
view all 5 authors...
Chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash (STRONG), which disturbs oral microflora, has been shown to diminish the rise in plasma nitrite concentration ([NO2 −]) and attenuate the reduction in resting blood pressure (BP) typically seen after acute nitrate (NO3 −) ingestion. We aimed to determine whether STRONG and weaker antiseptic agents attenuate the physiological effects of chronic NO3 − supplementation using beetroot juice (BR). 12 healthy volunteers mouth-rinsed with STRONG, non-chlorhexidine mout...
28 CitationsSource
#1Michael J. Berry (Wake Forest University)H-Index: 26
#2Nicholas W. Justus (Wake Forest University)H-Index: 2
Last. Gary D. Miller (Wake Forest University)H-Index: 28
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Dietary nitrate (NO 3 − ) supplementation via beetroot juice has been shown to increase the exercise capacity of younger and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute NO 3 − ingestion on the submaximal constant work rate exercise capacity of COPD patients. Fifteen patients were assigned in a randomized, single-blind, crossover design to receive one of two treatments (beetroot juice then placebo or placebo then beetroot juice). Submaximal constant wo...
62 CitationsSource
Cited By0
Newest