Match!

The Proximate Causes of Waorani Warfare

Published on Sep 1, 2019in Human Nature
· DOI :10.1007/s12110-019-09348-2
Rocio Alarcon1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
James Yost2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 1 AuthorsStephen Beckerman I14
Estimated H-index: 14
Sources
Abstract
In response to recent work on the nature of human aggression, and to shed light on the proximate, as opposed to ultimate, causes of tribal warfare, we present a record of events leading to a fatal Waorani raid on a family from another tribe, followed by a detailed first-person observation of the behavior of the raiders as they prepared themselves for war, and upon their return. We contrast this attack with other Waorani aggressions and speculate on evidence regarding their hormonal underpinnings. On-the-ground ethnographic observations are examined in light of the neuroendocrinological literature. The evidence suggests a chain of causality in launching lethal violence, beginning with a perceived injury, culminating in a massacre, and terminating in rejoicing. Although no blood or saliva samples were taken at the time of this raid, the behaviors were consistent with a deliberate initiation of the hormonal cascade characterizing the “fight-or-flight” response, along with other hormonal changes. We conclude with observations on the stratified interrelationships of the cognitive, social, emotional, and neuroendocrinological causes of aggression leading to coalitional male homicide.
  • References (36)
  • Citations (1)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
38 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References36
Newest
#1Richard J. Chacon (WU: Winthrop University)H-Index: 7
#2Yamilette Chacon (JMU: James Madison University)H-Index: 2
This special issue of Human Nature presents selected works from the 2015 and 2017 “Warfare, Environment, Social Inequality, and Pro-Sociability” (WESIPS) conferences held at the Center for Cross-Cultural Study in Seville, Spain. These investigations explore the manifestations of indigenous warfare and violence from a host of theoretical perspectives. Topics range from the origins of warfare to the psychological repercussions of combat, the relationship between warfare and status, as well as the ...
1 CitationsSource
#1Carsten K. W. De Dreu (LEI: Leiden University)H-Index: 66
#2Jörg Gross (LEI: Leiden University)H-Index: 4
Conflict can profoundly affect individuals and their groups. Oftentimes, conflict involves a clash between one side seeking change and increased gains through victory and the other side defending the status quo and protecting against loss and defeat. However, theory and empirical research largely neglected these conflicts between attackers and defenders, and the strategic, social, and psychological consequences of attack and defense remain poorly understood. To fill this void, we model (1) the c...
2 CitationsSource
#1Shane J. Macfarlan (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 9
#2Pamela I. Erickson (UConn: University of Connecticut)H-Index: 10
Last. Stephen Beckerman I (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 14
view all 6 authors...
The root of modern human warfare lies in the lethal coalitionary violence of males in small-scale societies. However, there is a paucity of quantitative data concerning the form and function of coa...
4 CitationsSource
#1Hejing Zhang (BNU: Beijing Normal University)H-Index: 1
#2Jörg Gross (LEI: Leiden University)H-Index: 4
Last. Yina Ma (BNU: Beijing Normal University)H-Index: 23
view all 4 authors...
Intergroup conflict contributes to human discrimination and violence, but persists because individuals make costly contributions to their group9s fighting capacity. Yet how groups effectively synchronize their contributions during intergroup conflict remains poorly understood. Here we examine whether the evolutionary ancient neuropeptide oxytocin provides a neurobiological mechanism underlying group synchronization to attack or defend during real-time intergroup conflict. In a double-blind place...
1 CitationsSource
Abstract Two major types of aggression, proactive and reactive, are associated with contrasting expression, eliciting factors, neural pathways, development, and function. The distinction is useful for understanding the nature and evolution of human aggression. Compared with many primates, humans have a high propensity for proactive aggression, a trait shared with chimpanzees but not bonobos. By contrast, humans have a low propensity for reactive aggression compared with chimpanzees, and in this ...
28 CitationsSource
#1Liran Samuni (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 6
#2Anna Preis (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 6
Last. Roman M. Wittig (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 29
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Intergroup conflict is evident throughout the history of our species, ubiquitous across human societies, and considered crucial for the evolution of humans’ large-scale cooperative nature. Like humans, chimpanzee societies exhibit intragroup coordination and coalitionary support during violent intergroup conflicts. In both species, cooperation among group members is essential for individuals to gain access to benefits from engaging in intergroup conflict. Studies suggest that a contribu...
38 CitationsSource
#1Adrian V. Jaeggi (UCSB: University of California, Santa Barbara)H-Index: 16
#2Benjamin C. Trumble (UCSB: University of California, Santa Barbara)H-Index: 17
Last. Michael Gurven (UCSB: University of California, Santa Barbara)H-Index: 48
view all 4 authors...
Oxytocin, testosterone and cortisol can have opposing effects on social behaviour, yet few studies have examined their interactions. We measured changes in salivary oxytocin, testosterone and cortisol among Tsimane’ men returning home after hunting, an ancient context of male status competition, parental investment and cooperation. Contra normal diurnal rhythm, oxytocin increased relative to baseline and this increase was positively associated with duration of the hunt and change in testosterone...
17 CitationsSource
#1Justin M. Carré (Nipissing University)H-Index: 33
#2Nathan A. Olmstead (Nipissing University)H-Index: 3
Abstract A large body of evidence indicates that individual differences in baseline concentrations of testosterone (T) are only weakly correlated with human aggression. Importantly, T concentrations are not static, but rather fluctuate rapidly in the context of competitive interactions, suggesting that acute fluctuations in T may be more relevant for our understanding of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying variability in human aggression. In this paper, we provide an overview of the literat...
106 CitationsSource
#1Anders Hånell (Uppsala University)H-Index: 11
#2Niklas Marklund (Uppsala University)H-Index: 34
A large variety of rodent behavioral tests are currently being used to evaluate traits such as sensory-motor function, social interactions, anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior, substance dependence and various forms of cognitive function. Most behavioral tests have an inherent complexity, and their use requires consideration of several aspects such as the source of motivation in the test, the interaction between experimenter and animal, sources of variability, the sensory modality required...
151 CitationsSource
Owing to humans' unique life history pattern, particularly comparatively short interbirth intervals, early weaning, and prolonged support of multiple dependents, human females have greater reproductive value and higher lifetime fertility, on average, than do their Great Ape counterparts.[1-4] As hominin females began weaning their young early and “stacking” dependents of various ages, they must have had cooperative allomaternal care partners already in place or been successful at concurrently so...
59 CitationsSource
Cited By1
Newest
#1Richard J. Chacon (WU: Winthrop University)H-Index: 7
#2Yamilette Chacon (JMU: James Madison University)H-Index: 2
This special issue of Human Nature presents selected works from the 2015 and 2017 “Warfare, Environment, Social Inequality, and Pro-Sociability” (WESIPS) conferences held at the Center for Cross-Cultural Study in Seville, Spain. These investigations explore the manifestations of indigenous warfare and violence from a host of theoretical perspectives. Topics range from the origins of warfare to the psychological repercussions of combat, the relationship between warfare and status, as well as the ...
1 CitationsSource