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The Role of the Gut-Brain Axis in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Published on Sep 1, 2019in Gastroenterology Clinics of North America3.366
· DOI :10.1016/j.gtc.2019.05.001
Sarita A. Dam (Radboud University Nijmegen), Jeanette C. Mostert9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
+ 3 AuthorsAlejandro Arias-Vasquez24
Estimated H-index: 24
(Radboud University Nijmegen)
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#1Molly Cairncross (U of W: University of Windsor)H-Index: 3
#2Carlin J. Miller (U of W: University of Windsor)H-Index: 17
Objective: Mindfulness-based therapies (MBTs) have been shown to be efficacious in treating internally focused psychological disorders (e.g., depression); however, it is still unclear whether MBTs ...
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#1Stephen V. Faraone (State University of New York Upstate Medical University)H-Index: 164
#2Henrik Larsson (Örebro University)H-Index: 58
Decades of research show that genes play an vital role in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its comorbidity with other disorders. Family, twin, and adoption studies show that ADHD runs in families. ADHD’s high heritability of 74% motivated the search for ADHD susceptibility genes. Genetic linkage studies show that the effects of DNA risk variants on ADHD must, individually, be very small. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated several genetic loc...
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#1Philip Strandwitz (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 4
#2Yang Soo Kim (SKKU: Sungkyunkwan University)H-Index: 99
Last. Kim Lewis (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 69
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The gut microbiota affects many important host functions, including the immune response and the nervous system1. However, while substantial progress has been made in growing diverse microorganisms of the microbiota2, 23–65% of species residing in the human gut remain uncultured3,4, which is an obstacle for understanding their biological roles. A likely reason for this unculturability is the absence in artificial media of key growth factors that are provided by neighbouring bacteria in situ5,6. I...
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#1J. J. S. Kooij (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 1
#2D. BijlengaH-Index: 1
Last. Philip Asherson ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 80
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Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that often persists into adulthood and old age. Yet ADHD is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated in many European countries, leading to chronicity of symptoms and impairment, due to lack of, or ineffective treatment, and higher costs of illness. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD and the Section for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Across the Lifespan (NDAL) of the Europea...
13 CitationsSource
#1Ditte Demontis (Lundbeck)H-Index: 15
#2Raymond K. Walters (Broad Institute)H-Index: 20
Last. Richard Anney (Broad Institute)H-Index: 44
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Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new inform...
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#1Thomaz F. S. Bastiaanssen (UCC: University College Cork)H-Index: 5
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Finely tuned mechanisms enable the gastrointestinal tract to break down dietary components into nutrients without mounting, in the majority of cases, a dysregulated immune or functional host response. However, adverse reactions to food have been steadily increasing, and evidence suggests that this process is environmental. Adverse food reactions can be divided according to their underlying pathophysiology into food intolerances, when, for instance, there is deficiency of a host enzyme required t...
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Abstract Deficits in dopaminergic function are thought to underlie attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopaminergic neurons are the main source of dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter that acts as a neuromodulator of cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which receives dopaminergic inputs from the ventral tegmental area. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely studied as an animal model of ADHD. The aim of the curre...
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#1Anna M. Sandgren (Örebro University)H-Index: 1
#2Robert Brummer (Örebro University)H-Index: 5
Abstract The microbiome-gut-brain axis paradigm explains that alterations in the central nervous system and behavior may be secondary to functional changes in the gut in general and more specifically the enteric nervous system. An unfavorable development of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, leading to e.g. a diminished microbial diversity, may play a central role. This paper outlines, and describes the theoretical basis of, a novel integrative model explaining the etiology and pathogenesis of ...
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#2Sarita DamH-Index: 1
Last. Alejandro Arias VasquezH-Index: 24
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. Given the growing evidence of gut microbiota being involved in psychiatric (including neurodevelopmental) disorders, we aimed to identify differences in gut microbiota composition between participants with ADHD and controls and to investigate the role of the microbiota in inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Fecal samples were collected from 107 participants (NADHD = 42; Ncontrols = 50; NsubthreholdADH...
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