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Trace element substitution and grain-scale compositional heterogeneity in enargite

Published on Aug 1, 2019in Ore Geology Reviews 3.39
· DOI :10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103004
Wenyuan Liu (University of Adelaide), Nigel J. Cook32
Estimated H-index: 32
(University of Adelaide)
+ 1 AuthorsSe Gilbert15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Adelaide)
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Abstract
Abstract Enargite, Cu 3 AsS 4 , is a relatively common sulphide mineral and is considered diagnostic for deposits of intermediate- to high-sulphidation type. Analysis of enargite-bearing samples from deposits in the Zijinshan porphyry - high-sulphidation epithermal Cu-Au orefield, southeastern China, provides evidence for the diversity of trace elements that may be hosted within enargite and their range of concentrations. Enargite is shown to host Sb, Te, Sn, Zn and Ge at concentrations up to several thousand ppm. The mineral also incorporates measurable concentrations of Mo, Cd, Bi, Pb, Fe, Se, Ag, Au W, Ga and In. Element mapping (electron probe microanalysis and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) provides evidence for grain-scale heterogeneity in enargite in the form of oscillatory, grain-scale compositional zonation with respect to Sb, Sn, Te and several other trace elements. Element mapping also clearly shows an inverse correlation between the concentrations of As and Te, and between As and Sn. Incorporation of Sn and Te into the enargite structure is achieved by substitution of Sn 4+ and Te 4+ for As 5+ . Charge balance is maintained by incorporation of Fe 2+ , Zn 2+ and other divalent cations (potentially including Cu 2+ ) into the Cu + site. The complex intra-grain zoning results from evolving fluids, multiple phases of growth – in turn leading to an overprinting of primary distribution patterns. Observed patterns are also influenced by equilibrium partitioning between enargite and co-existing minerals. Nevertheless, trace element signatures in enargite from different parts of the Zijinshan ore system show notable differences. Enargite from the high-sulphidation stage typically shows a marked enrichment in Te and Sn whereas enargite from intermediate-sulphidation stage is relatively depleted in Te and Sn, and comparatively enriched in Sb and Se. These differences represent a potential vector for exploration within porphyry – high-sulphidation epithermal systems. Furthermore, the presence of Te-rich enargite may be a prospective guide to high Au-grade mineralization. The notable concentrations of precious metals (Au, Ag) and critical elements (notably Te and Ge) within enargite make this mineral of particular interest from the perspective of potential recovery of these economically important elements. The observed grain-scale zoning and inherent variability within any given sample emphasize that spot analysis of trace elements alone without consideration of such heterogeneity may provide quantitative data of limited use and potentially, lead to misleading interpretations.
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References41
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Published on Nov 5, 2017in Minerals 2.25
Fredrik Sahlström2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Antonio Arribas10
Estimated H-index: 10
+ 2 AuthorsZhaoshan Chang15
Estimated H-index: 15
Germanium, gallium and indium are in high demand due to their growing usage in high-tech and green-tech applications. However, the mineralogy and the mechanisms of concentration of these critical elements in different types of hydrothermal ore deposits remain poorly constrained. We investigated the mineralogical distribution of Ge, Ga and In at the Mt Carlton high-sulfidation epithermal deposit in NE Australia, using electron probe microanalysis and laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass...
Published on Jan 29, 2017in Minerals 2.25
Luke L. George5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Nigel J. Cook32
Estimated H-index: 32
,
Cristiana L. Ciobanu28
Estimated H-index: 28
Minerals of the tetrahedrite isotypic series are widespread components of base metal ores, where they co-exist with common base metal sulphides (BMS) such as sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite. We used electron probe microanalysis and laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry to obtain quantitative multi-trace element data on tetrahedrite-tennantite in a suite of 37 samples from different deposits with the objective of understanding which trace elements can be incorporated, a...
Published on Jan 1, 2017in Mineralogical Magazine 2.21
Luke L. George5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Adelaide),
Nigel J. Cook32
Estimated H-index: 32
(University of Adelaide)
+ 1 AuthorsCristiana L. Ciobanu28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Adelaide)
Published on Nov 1, 2016in Chemical Geology 3.62
Vesselin M. Dekov16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology),
Olivier J. Rouxel43
Estimated H-index: 43
(WHOI: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
+ 6 AuthorsMarkus Wälle17
Estimated H-index: 17
(ETH Zurich)
Abstract Active and inactive hydrothermal chimneys composed almost entirely of enargite and luzonite, rare minerals in seafloor hydrothermal deposits, were found at the summits of two submarine volcanoes, North Su and Kaia Natai, in the Manus Back-Arc Basin. Detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies revealed that most probably these deposits precipitated at T = 200°–330 °C and high fS 2 . The negative δ 34 S values (− 8.58 to − 3.70‰) of the enargite-luzonite are best explained by dispropor...
Published on Nov 1, 2016in Minerals Engineering 3.31
Daniel J. Lane5
Estimated H-index: 5
(University of Adelaide),
Nigel J. Cook32
Estimated H-index: 32
(University of Adelaide)
+ 1 AuthorsKathy Ehrig13
Estimated H-index: 13
(BHP Billiton)
Abstract Custom copper smelters impose substantial financial penalties for the presence of deleterious impurity elements in copper concentrates and can outright reject concentrates which contain impurity elements in concentrations that exceed specified values. Hence, there is strong motivation to remove penalised impurity elements from copper concentrates at the mine site before shipping to custom smelters. A number of leach systems have been developed for the selective extraction of penalty ele...
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Nigel J. Cook32
Estimated H-index: 32
,
Cristiana L. Ciobanu28
Estimated H-index: 28
+ 3 AuthorsKathy Ehrig13
Estimated H-index: 13
Laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has rapidly established itself as the method of choice for generation of multi-element datasets for specific minerals, with broad applications in Earth science. Variation in absolute concentrations of different trace elements within common, widely distributed phases, such as pyrite, iron-oxides (magnetite and hematite), and key accessory minerals, such as apatite and titanite, can be particularly valuable for understanding p...
Published on Jan 1, 2016in Ore Geology Reviews 3.39
Liu Wenyuan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(FZU: Fuzhou University),
Nigel J. Cook32
Estimated H-index: 32
(University of Adelaide)
+ 3 AuthorsChen Yuchuan2
Estimated H-index: 2
Abstract The Zijinshan orefield is a Cu–Au–Mo–Ag porphyry–epithermal mineralization system of Cretaceous age in southeastern China, comprising the Zijinshan high-sulfidation (HS) Au–Cu deposit, Luoboling porphyry Cu–Mo deposits, Yueyang low-sulfidation Au–Ag–Cu deposit, and Wuziqilong and Longjiangting intermediate-sulfidation (IS) Cu deposit. A number of Sn-(W)-sulfides occur in the Zijinshan orefield, including kiddcreekite, hemusite, colusite, vinciennite, stannoidite, mawsonite and kesterite...
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Mineralogical Magazine 2.21
Liu Wenyuan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(FZU: Fuzhou University),
Dong Cheng1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 3 AuthorsChen Yuchuan2
Estimated H-index: 2
Abundant kiddcreekite grains were identified in the Zijinshan Cu-Au epithermal deposit in Fujian Province, China. The mineral occurs as polycrystalline grains, 5–300 μm in size, associated with colusite, enargite, stannoidite, mawsonite, vinciennite, hemusite, tennantite and wolframite in a predominantly covellite ore. Based on electron microprobe analysis, the empirical formula of the kiddcreekite is Cu 6.2 Sn 0.97 W 0.95 S 7.83 , without significant Se or Te contents. The crystal structure of ...
M. Sadegh Safarzadeh10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UofU: University of Utah),
Michael S. Moats16
Estimated H-index: 16
(UofU: University of Utah),
Jan D. Miller45
Estimated H-index: 45
(UofU: University of Utah)
The copper industry is witnessing great interest in the development and utilization of copper-arsenic deposits. While most plants tend to use traditional processing technologies, the depletion of conventional copper ores has created competition for designing and implementing new process alternatives for the treatment of copper-arsenic ores containing minerals such as enargite, luzonite, and tennantite. Nevertheless, the downstream processing of high-arsenic copper concentrates represents a signi...
Published on Dec 1, 2013in Canadian Mineralogist 1.40
Laura Maydagán6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UNS: Universidad Nacional del Sur),
Marta Franchini9
Estimated H-index: 9
(CONICET: National Scientific and Technical Research Council)
+ 2 AuthorsChristopher R.M. McFarlane12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UNB: University of New Brunswick)
Sulfides and sulfosalts from the porphyry, transitional, and epithermal high sulfidation stages of the Altar Cu-(Au) deposit (San Juan, Argentina) were investigated by electron microprobe, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS), and S isotopic analysis. Compositional differences found in the trace-element content in pyrite, chalcopyrite, and enargite from different alteration zones and depths of the system have implications in the physicochemical evolution of the...
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