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Dietary fats, blood pressure and artery health

Published on Jun 1, 2019
· DOI :10.1136/openhrt-2019-001035
James J. DiNicolantonio24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UMKC: University of Missouri–Kansas City),
James H. O'Keefe52
Estimated H-index: 52
(UMKC: University of Missouri–Kansas City)
Nitric oxide is an important endogenously made vasodilator that has numerous antiatherosclerotic properties. Many lines of evidence suggest that a lack of nitric oxide can lead to hypertension and atherosclerotic plaque formation.1 Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is the enzyme that produces nitric oxide in the body. The two main inhibitors of NOS are asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) and NG-monomethyl arginine. These NOS inhibitors are metabolised and inactivated by the enzyme dimethyarginine dimethylamine hydrolase (DDAH). Thus, inhibition of DDAH can lead to a reduction in NOS. The oxidation of the omega-6 fat linoleic acid can form the highly reactive aldehyde called 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), which has been noted to reduce nitric oxide generation from endothelial cells by reducing the activity of the DDAH enzyme.2 An inhibition of DDAH increases the NOS inhibitor ADMA in endothelial cells causing endothelial NOS (eNOS) ‘uncoupling’ and increased production of superoxide rather than nitric oxide. Since ADMA competitively inhibits NOS and is an independent cardiovascular risk factor this suggests that consuming isolated forms of linoleic acid, such as refined omega-6 vegetable oils, may lead to elevations in blood pressure and potentially hypertension.3 Moreover, linoleic acid inhibits insulin signalling and eNOS activation in the vasculature both of which are implicated in hypertension.4 Conditions with reduced NOS activity coincide with disease states that are hallmarked by an increase in oxidised lipids, including oxidised linoleic acid. When LDL becomes oxidised, this is initially from the oxidised linoleic acid contained within the LDL, which forms the highly reactive aldehyde 4-HNE, levels of which coincide with increased atherosclerotic progression.2 Since oxidised LDL is found in atherosclerotic lesions in animals and in humans5 and can directly cause endothelial dysfunction via reductions in nitric oxide, the ability of dietary linoleic acid to increase LDL susceptibility to oxidation suggests …
  • References (28)
  • Citations (0)
Published on Aug 1, 2017
James J DiNicolantonio5
Estimated H-index: 5
James H. O'Keefe52
Estimated H-index: 52
Mark F. McCarty25
Estimated H-index: 25
The failure of daily aspirin therapy to achieve an adequate or ‘normal’ suppression of platelet aggregation, as assessed ex vivo, is known as ‘aspirin resistance’.1 2 A substantial fraction of patients classified as aspirin-resistant are in fact poorly compliant.3 In other cases, an increase in platelet turnover, often seen in association with systemic inflammation, as found in smokers and patients with diabetes, may render a once-daily administration schedule inadequate.2 4–6 (Administering asp...
Published on Feb 17, 2017in Circulation Research 15.86
Ulrich Förstermann77
Estimated H-index: 77
Ning Xia21
Estimated H-index: 21
Huige Li46
Estimated H-index: 46
Major reactive oxygen species (ROS)–producing systems in vascular wall include NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase, xanthine oxidase, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase. ROS at moderate concentrations have important signaling roles under physiological conditions. Excessive or sustained ROS production, however, when exceeding the available antioxidant defense systems, leads to oxidative stress. A...
Published on Sep 1, 2016in Journal of Lipid Research 4.74
Se aacuten McManus1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UEA: University of East Anglia),
Noemi Tejera11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UEA: University of East Anglia)
+ 5 AuthorsAnne Marie Minihane44
Estimated H-index: 44
(UEA: University of East Anglia)
Our objective was to investigate the impact of EPA versus DHA, on arterial stiffness and reactivity, and underlying mechanisms (with a focus on plasma oxylipins), in the postprandial state. In a 3-arm cross-over acute test meal trial men (n=26, 35-55y) at increased CVD risk, received a high fat (42.4g) test meal providing 4.16 g of EPA or DHA or control oil in random order. At 0 h and 4 h, blood samples were collected to quantify plasma fatty acids, LCn-3PUFAs derived oxylipins, nitrite and hydr...
Published on Dec 1, 2015in Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 4.49
Justine Marchix1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Agrocampus Ouest),
Benjamin Choque4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Agrocampus Ouest)
+ 3 AuthorsPhilippe Legrand33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Agrocampus Ouest)
Abstract Following the historical dietary recommendations, the substitution of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for saturated fatty acids (SFAs) resulted in a dramatic increase of linoleic acid (LA) in the Western diet. While proatherogenic properties of SFAs have been described, the involvement of LA on the inflammatory process remains controversial. Herein, we evaluated the effects of an excessive LA intake on the cytokine-induced expression of endothelial adhesion molecules vascular cell a...
Published on Nov 1, 2015in Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 3.60
Daniela Gradinaru13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UMFCD: Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy),
Claudia Borsa4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 1 AuthorsGabriel Ioan Prada3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UMFCD: Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy)
Abstract Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and nitric oxide (NO) exert contradictory actions within the vascular endothelium microenvironment influencing key events in atherogenesis. OxLDL and NO are so far regarded as representative parameters of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, new targets in prevention, diagnosis and therapy of cardiovascular diseases, and also as candidate biomarkers in evaluating the human biological age. The aim of this review is to explore recent literature on molecular m...
Published on May 22, 2013in PLOS ONE 2.78
Lei Chen7
Estimated H-index: 7
(CSU: Central South University),
Ji-Peng Zhou6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CSU: Central South University)
+ 3 AuthorsXiao-Ping Chen20
Estimated H-index: 20
(CSU: Central South University)
Objective To investigate whether 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) regulates asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) metabolism through pathway independent of direct adduct formation with ADMA metabolizing enzyme and the involvement of microRNA (miRNA) miR-21 in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods Cultured HUVECs were treated with 4-HNE (at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 µM, respectively) or 1‰ DMSO (vehicle control) for 24 h. MiR-21 inhibitor (final concentration of 100 nM) was transfe...
Published on Apr 1, 2012in Atherosclerosis 4.25
Qianqian Wang5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Peking Union Medical College),
Xiaohua Liang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Peking Union Medical College)
+ 5 AuthorsDongfeng Gu63
Estimated H-index: 63
(Peking Union Medical College)
a b s t r a c t Objective: Inverse association was reported between omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) supplementation and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Identifying the effect of omega-3 FAs on endothelial function may contribute to explain the association. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effect of omega3 FAs supplementation on endothelial function, as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent vasodilation (EIV). Methods: Randomized placebo-controlled trials (R...
Published on Mar 1, 2011in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 3.57
Sarah Egert19
Estimated H-index: 19
Peter Stehle47
Estimated H-index: 47
Purpose of reviewDysfunction of the endothelium plays an integral role in atherogenesis. This review summarizes recent findings on the effects of marine [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and plant [alpha-linolenic acids (ALA)] n − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on endo
Published on Oct 1, 2009in Atherosclerosis 4.25
Stefano Rizza19
Estimated H-index: 19
Manfredi Tesauro30
Estimated H-index: 30
+ 7 AuthorsDavide Lauro42
Estimated H-index: 42
Objective Offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes (OPDs) exhibits endothelial dysfunction (ED) associated with a chronic inflammatory state. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are beneficial for cardiovascular and metabolic health. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in n-3 PUFA may improve ED in otherwise healthy OPDs.
Published on Jan 21, 2008in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 14.30
Stephen A Wright6
Estimated H-index: 6
Fiona M O'Prey1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 7 AuthorsGary E. McVeigh31
Estimated H-index: 31
Objective: To determine the clinical effect of dietary supplementation with low-dose ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on disease activity and endothelial function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: A 24-week randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel trial of the effect of 3 g of ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on 60 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus was performed. Serial measurements of disease activity using the revised Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLA...
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