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Know the signs and symptoms of diabetes.

Published on Nov 1, 2014in Indian Journal of Medical Research1.251
A Ramachandran1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disease, affecting people of all geographic, ethnic or racial origin and its prevalence is increasing globally1. Burden from this costly disease is high on the low and middle income countries (LMIC) where the impacts of modernization and urbanization have caused marked adverse changes in lifestyle parameters. In 2013, of the estimated 382 million people with diabetes globally, more than 80 per cent lived in LMIC. It was estimated that India had 65.1 million adults with diabetes in 2013, and had the 2nd position among the top 10 countries with the largest number of diabetes. This number is predicted to increase to 109 million by 2035 unless steps are taken to prevent new cases of diabetes1. Primary prevention of diabetes is feasible and strategies such as lifestyle modification are shown to be effective in populations of varied ethnicity2,3. However, for implementation of the strategies at the population level, national programmes which are culturally and socially acceptable and practical have to be formulated which are currently lacking in most of the developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapeutic measures yield the desired glycaemic outcomes and prevent the vascular complications4. Type 2 diabetes which accounts for 85-95 per cent of all diabetes has a latent, asymptomatic period of sub-clinical stages which often remains undiagnosed for several years1. As a result, in many patients the vascular complications are already present at the time of diagnosis of diabetes, which is often detected by an opportunistic testing. Asian populations in general, particularly Asian Indians have a high risk of developing diabetes at a younger age when compared with the western populations5. Therefore, it is essential that efforts are made to diagnose diabetes early so that the long term sufferings by the patients and the societal burden can be considerably mitigated.
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#1Julia MatuszewskaH-Index: 1
#2Kamil ZiarniakH-Index: 3
Last. Joanna H. ŚliwowskaH-Index: 1
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Abstract Obesity, which reaches an epidemic, is characterized by alterations in metabolic and hormonal profiles. Moreover, uncontrolled obesity may lead to development of diabetes type 2, which accounts for about 90% of all diabetic cases. In obesity, besides changes in metabolism, numerous co-morbidities are reported, e.g. disruptions of reproductive functions. Additionally, sex differences in development of this disease occur. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to high-fat diet (HFD; con...
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#1M. M. Faniqul Islam (QMUL: Queen Mary University of London)
#2Rahatara Ferdousi (Metropolitan University)H-Index: 1
Last. Humayra Yasmin Bushra (Metropolitan University)
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Diabetes is one of the fastest growing chronic life threatening diseases that have already affected 422 million people worldwide according to the report of World Health Organization (WHO), in 2018. Due to the presence of a relatively long asymptomatic phase, early detection of diabetes is always desired for a clinically meaningful outcome. Around 50% of all people suffering from diabetes are undiagnosed because of its long-term asymptomatic phase. The early diagnosis of diabetes is only possible...
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#1Peter R. Rehani (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)
#2Hanaa Iftikhar (Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Medical University of Bahrain)
Last. Riyadh N. RehaniH-Index: 1
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5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a delta amino acid naturally present in every living cell of the human body. 5-ALA is produced in the mitochondria as the first product of the porphyrin synthesis pathway and composes heme; exogenously supplemented 5-ALA helps in upregulating mitochondrial functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the mechanisms of action and adverse effects of common medications used ...
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Kisspeptin (KP) plays a major role in the regulation of reproduction governed by the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis. However, recent findings suggest that the KP system is present not only centrally (at the level of the hypothalamus), but also in the peripheral organs crucial for the control of metabolism. The KP system is sexually differentiated in the hypothalamus, and it is of particular interest to study whether sex-specific responses to type 2 diabetes (DM2) exist centrally and p...
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#1Lian Bai (SDU: Shandong University)
Last. Durairaj Sekar (Saveetha University)H-Index: 1
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AbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the severe metabolic diseases found in all types of people’s lives in lower, middle and high income countries. It is suggested that the prevalence of diabet...
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#1Kong Yong Loo (UM: University of Malaya)H-Index: 1
#2Kok Hoong Leong (UM: University of Malaya)H-Index: 11
Last. Khalijah Awang (UM: University of Malaya)H-Index: 29
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The inhibition of carbohydrate‐hydrolyzing enzymes in human digestive organs is crucial in controlling blood sugar levels, which is important in treating type 2 diabetes. In the current study, pahangensin A (1), a bis‐labdanic diterpene characterized previously in the rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis Ridl., was identified as an active dual inhibitor for α‐amylase (IC50=114.80 μm) and α‐glucosidase (IC50=153.87 μm). This is the first report on the dual α‐amylase and α‐glucosidase inhibitory activi...
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#2Sushma SrivastavaH-Index: 1
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Pharmacovigilance in India was initiated way back in 1986 with a formal adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring system, under supervision of the drug controller of India. India joined the World Health Organization (WHO) Programme for International Drug Monitoring in 1998, but was not successful. Later, the National Programme of Pharmacovigilance was launched in 2005, and was renamed as the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI) in 2010. In consideration of having a robust pharmacovigilance s...
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#1Zehra YonelH-Index: 2
#2Praveen SharmaH-Index: 10
Last. Laura J. Gray (University of Leicester)H-Index: 47
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BackgroundType 2 diabetes is a growing global challenge. Evidence exists demonstrating use of primary care (non-hospital based) dental practices to identify, through risk-assessments, those who may be at increased risk of type 2 diabetes or who may already unknowingly have the condition. AimSynthesise the evidence associated with the use of primary-care dental services for the identification of undiagnosed non-diabetic hyperglycaemia or type 2 diabetes in adult patients, with a particular focus ...
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