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‘Beauty and the beast’ in infection: How immune–endocrine interactions regulate systemic metabolism in the context of infection

Published on May 27, 2019in European Journal of Immunology4.695
· DOI :10.1002/eji.201847895
Felix M. Wensveen18
Estimated H-index: 18
(University of Rijeka),
Marko Šestan4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Rijeka)
+ 1 AuthorsBojan Polić26
Estimated H-index: 26
(University of Rijeka)
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Summary T cells represent a critical effector of cell-mediated immunity. Activated T cells engage in metabolic reprogramming during effector differentiation to accommodate dynamic changes in energy demands. Here, we show that the hormone, insulin, and downstream signaling through its insulin receptor shape adaptive immune function through modulating T cell metabolism. T cells lacking insulin receptor expression (LckCre+ Insr fl/fl ) show reduced antigen-specific proliferation and compromised pro...
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OBJECTIVE Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of infections, but the effect of better control has not been thoroughly investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS With the use of English primary care data, average glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) during 2008–2009 was estimated for 85,312 patients with DM ages 40–89 years. Infection rates during 2010–2015 compiled from primary care, linked hospital, and mortality records were estimated across 18 infection categories and further summarized as any re...
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The 1921 discovery of insulin was a Big Bang from which a vast and expanding universe of research into insulin action and resistance has issued. In the intervening century, some discoveries have ma...
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Summary Pathogen virulence exists on a continuum. The strategies that drive symptomatic or asymptomatic infections remain largely unknown. We took advantage of the concept of lethal dose 50 (LD50) to ask which component of individual non-genetic variation between hosts defines whether they survive or succumb to infection. Using the enteric pathogen Citrobacter , we found no difference in pathogen burdens between healthy and symptomatic populations. Iron metabolism-related genes were induced in a...
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Summary Pro-inflammatory cytokines of a T helper-1-signature are known to promote insulin resistance (IR) in obesity, but the physiological role of this mechanism is unclear. It is also unknown whether and how viral infection induces loss of glycemic control in subjects at risk for developing diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). We have found in mice and humans that viral infection caused short-term systemic IR. Virally-induced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) directly targeted skeletal muscle to downregulate th...
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Summary To fight infections, macrophages undergo a metabolic shift whereby increased glycolysis fuels antimicrobial inflammation and killing of pathogens. Here we demonstrate that the pathogen Candida albicans turns this metabolic reprogramming into an Achilles' heel for macrophages. During Candida -macrophage interactions intertwined metabolic shifts occur, with concomitant upregulation of glycolysis in both host and pathogen setting up glucose competition. Candida thrives on multiple carbon so...
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The essential roles played by the immune system in the discrimination between self- versus non/altered-self and its integral role in promoting host defense against invading microbes and tumors have been extensively studied for many years. In these contexts, significant advances have been made in defining the molecular and cellular networks that orchestrate cell-cell communication to mediate host defense and pathogen expulsion. Notably, recent studies indicate that in addition to these classical ...
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People with diabetes may be at higher risk for acquiring infections through both glucose-dependent and biologic pathways independent of glycemic control. Our aim was to estimate the association between diabetes and infections occurring in primary care. Using the Newfoundland and Labrador Sentinel of the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network, patients with diabetes ≥18 years between 1 January 2008 and 31 March 2013 were included with at least 1-year of follow-up. We randomly matched...
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